Everyone’s digestive tract is an extremely complex and highly sophisticated factory, but humans know very little about this super factory. It will be tempered, passive or even strike from time to time, but most of the time these are not catastrophic problems. The human body can repair simple daily failures by itself, but once the system is paralyzed, it needs to ask a doctor to solve it.
We are no strangers to the "waste" of the factory (digestive system)-poop, and poop plays an important role as an early warning of intestinal health in our lives. It is precisely because serious diseases such as malignant tumors are difficult to detect at an early stage, once the obvious symptoms often indicate the progress of the disease, the warning significance of stool is even more important.
By understanding a series of changes in poop, it is possible for us to prevent problems before they happen, find the clues of malignant tumors as soon as possible, and then diagnose and treat them in time.
What is normal poop
The composition of poop is certainly related to the food we eat, but it also contains a lot of water and intestinal bacteria.
Normal stool should be brown or brown, round, soft, and similar in shape to a banana. In addition to water, the poop also contains a large number of intestinal bacteria. The bacteria decompose and produce an odor, which is why the poop has an unpleasant smell.
Is it normal to defecate once a day?
Normal stool not only refers to the normal shape, texture, color, and smell, but also includes good defecation habits, which means that the stool can be discharged regularly and easily at a relatively fixed time every day.
The frequency and habits of bowel movements vary from person to person, and most people defecate once a day and in the morning. Most people pass stool within 5 minutes, and there is no residual stool after the end, and they feel relaxed.
1 to 3 bowel movements a day are within the normal range. If you defecate once every 2 to 3 days, it cannot be considered as constipation in general. It is necessary to comprehensively consider many factors such as bowel volume and difficulty.
Be vigilant about what will happen
Color and character
If the stool is lumpy or granular: Generally, there is constipation. The stool will stay in the intestine for a relatively long time. The water in it is repeatedly absorbed, which will cause the stool to become hard.
Bloody stool: It is a relatively common type of abnormal stool. If the blood is bright red, attached to the outer layer of the stool, it is not mixed with the stool, and can be easily washed away with water, or if the blood drips after the stool, it is mostly bleeding from hemorrhoids. If blood is mixed with stool, accompanied by mucus or pus, you need to be highly vigilant against colorectal tumors.
Tar-like stool: The stool is black and shiny. Normal black stools are generally related to eating animal blood, internal organs, and special drugs, such as oral iron. As far as the disease is concerned, it is more common in bleeding from the stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon. The cause of bleeding can be benign diseases such as digestive ulcers or tumors.
White clay-like stool: Mainly seen in patients with bile duct obstruction.
Thick and loose stool: Generally, there is intestinal inflammation. At this time, the intestinal motility is accelerated and the intestine has no time to fully absorb. In this case, there is more water in the stool, so it presents a state of thick and loose stool.
Although normal stool has an unpleasant smell, if it has a strong smell, it indicates that there is an infection in the intestines, or eating too much meat, but the possibility of tumors cannot be ignored at this time.
Is stool occult blood positive for bowel cancer?
Don't panic when there is bloody stool or black stool. We can check whether there is gastrointestinal bleeding through stool occult blood test. Many people worry about whether a positive fecal occult blood test means a tumor. In fact, it depends on the situation. If it is intermittently positive, the possibility of peptic ulcer is generally higher; but if it is persistently positive, it is necessary to suspect the possibility of malignant tumors, and it is recommended to perform gastrointestinal endoscopy to confirm the diagnosis.
Is it helpful to have a bowel movement in the bathroom and looking at the phone?
With the increasing number of people who bow their heads, in addition to taking the subway and eating, many people don’t even forget to bring their mobile phones to the bathroom, watch the news, browse Moments, and play games. However, using mobile phones in the toilet will prolong the defecation time, allowing the defecation person to maintain a long-term defecation posture, which affects the blood return in the anal area, and the sensation of defecation is easily missed, resulting in slow defecation or no defecation. So for the sake of health, everyone should put down their phones when going to the toilet.
How to make stool occult blood test more accurate
In order to make the stool occult blood test more accurate, it is recommended to start fasting meat and blood-containing foods, iron, and chlorophyll (such as spinach) food three days before the examination to avoid false positive or false negative results.
Other factors that may lead to false results
False positive: taking aspirin, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
False negative: large intake of vitamin C
Are you a high-risk group for colorectal cancer?
If you are between 40 and 74 years old or have one of the following factors:
1. People with poor dietary habits (long-term fatty meal or red meat intake).
2. Patients with a family history of colorectal cancer.
3. People suffering from chronic colitis.
4. People suffering from colon polyps.
5. Positive fecal occult blood.
Then it belongs to the high-risk group of colorectal cancer.
What should high-risk groups do?
1. People at high risk of colorectal cancer should undergo further colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Those who have colonoscopy contraindications should at least have a digital rectal examination. In addition, sigmoidoscopy or air-barium double enterography can be considered according to the specific situation. All lesions found under the microscope should be biopsy or removed for pathological diagnosis.
2. For those who do not undergo colonoscopy, fecal occult blood examination is recommended (two times, one week apart), and high-sensitivity immunoassay-FIT is recommended. Those who are positive are advised to participate in colonoscopy again, and those who are negative can also undergo colonoscopy if they wish.
How to deal with the test results?
The diagnosis and outcome of all lesions are based on the results of endoscopic and pathological examinations.
1. Persons who need clinical treatment
Adenomatous polyps, inflammatory bowel disease with high-grade intraepithelial tumors; other lesions with high-grade intraepithelial tumors; colorectal cancer; patients with other rare colorectal tumors.
2. Persons who need follow-up
Those who have a positive physical examination. Including neoplastic polyps and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as hyperplastic polyps, hamartoma polyps, inflammatory polyps, inflammatory bowel disease with low-grade intraepithelial tumors.
Both benign adenomas and precancerous lesions found in colorectal cancer prevention physical examination have the possibility of recurrence. Data show that the annual recurrence rate after adenoma removal is 5%-10%.
Therefore, patients with benign adenomas and precancerous lesions after treatment should continue to be followed up. For those who have found adenomas or precancerous lesions but have not been treated, re-examination and follow-up should be strengthened. Those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma or other malignant lesions will enter routine clinical follow-up.
(1) Adenomas with a diameter of ≥1cm, adenomas with a villous structure ≥25% (ie villous adenoma or mixed adenoma), and other lesions with high-grade intraepithelial tumors: the intestine should be reviewed again within the first year after treatment If no abnormalities are found, the interval between follow-up colonoscopy review can be extended to 3 years.
(2) Other adenomas: The colonoscopy should be reviewed again in the third year after diagnosis and treatment. If no abnormalities are found, the follow-up colonoscopy review interval can be extended to 5 years.
(3) Inflammatory bowel disease (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease): Check colonoscopy every two years after the diagnosis is confirmed. If high-grade intraepithelial tumors are found in the anti-cancer physical examination, colonoscopy should be reviewed every year after treatment.
(4) Other benign intestinal lesions: Because the increased risk of colorectal cancer is not obvious, it can be treated as the general population. The interval between colonoscopy review can be 5 to 10 years.
Intervention plan and path
See below for the group screening plan and path diagram for people at high risk of colorectal cancer.
1. For people older than 80 years old, because there is no clear clinical benefit, colonoscopy anti-cancer physical examination is not recommended; for 75-79-year-old people, whether to perform colonoscopy anti-cancer physical examination should be determined according to individual conditions; 2. For those with CEA, etc. Colonoscopy is strongly recommended for high-risk groups with elevated tumor indicators
Speaking of this, I have to mention a problem that bothers many people: constipation.
Some people think that constipation is nothing more than dry stools and difficulty in defecation, which is not a major disease. In fact, constipation is extremely harmful to human health and sometimes life-threatening.
Causes hemorrhoids and anal fissures
When hemorrhoids and anal fissures aggravate constipation, defecation time is too long, and force holding the breath to defecate, can increase abdominal pressure, obstruct the rectal and anal venous return, and over time, hemorrhoids are prone to occur. Because hemorrhoids can cause painful defecation, some patients are afraid of the pain during defecation and they dare not defecate or tolerate the inconvenience, so that the stool stays in the intestine for too long, which can cause constipation or aggravate constipation.
Dry and hard stool is easy to damage the anus when passing through the anus. When defecation is too strong, the stool is forced to pass through the anal canal, so that the anal canal suffers a deeper laceration to form anal fissure. Anal fissures are common in adults and young children. They mostly occur in patients suffering from chronic intractable constipation. As patients with anal fissures have pain during or after defecation, they are often afraid of defecation, which makes the stool stay in the intestines longer. Excessive absorption of water makes the stool drier and harder, aggravating constipation.
Lead to systemic poisoning
Abnormal bowel movements, 96% of toxins will be repeatedly absorbed by the intestines, resulting in intestinal aging. Feces stay in the intestines for too long, corrupt and ferment, and produce many toxic gases and toxic substances. These toxins and toxic gases are absorbed by the body into the blood with the reabsorption of the rectum, and then distributed throughout the body with the blood circulation, causing systemic poisoning. Long-term constipation, the vitality of life is reduced due to chronic poisoning, leading to weakness, susceptibility, premature aging and even reduced life span.
Increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
Defecation and breath-holding force can cause portal vein rupture, bleeding and death in patients with liver cirrhosis;
Patients with hypertension will hold their breath and defecate. In the mild case, the blood pressure will rise, and in the severe case, it will lead to cerebral hemorrhage and sudden death;
Patients with coronary heart disease can cause myocardial ischemia, palpitations, shortness of breath, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, etc., and severe cases can induce sudden cardiac death;
In elderly patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, excessive force during defecation will increase blood pressure and increase the body's oxygen consumption, which can easily induce cerebral hemorrhage, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and even life-threatening.
The intestine is the body's first protective barrier. Constipation can cause intestinal mucosal shedding and pathological changes. Long-term constipation may induce colon cancer and rectal cancer. A foreign research team isolated a strong carcinogen related to colon cancer from human feces. It has been confirmed that this pathogenic substance is produced by at least 5 kinds of intestinal bacteria in the intestinal stored feces after fermentation. It has similarities with the strongest carcinogen currently known. Obviously, constipation is the main culprit that causes bacteria to ferment in the intestines.
Affect the growth of young children
A long history of constipation in children can lead to neurological disorders, affect growth, and intellectual development.
Constipation is one of the main causes of senile dementia.
Constipation in women can lead to infertility and miscarriage.
Psychological and mental disorders
The unhealed constipation has brought great pain to her life, aggravated the mental and psychological trauma, and even felt unhappy. There have been many constipation patients who committed suicide due to unbearable conditions. Some scholars have reported that men with long-term constipation are prone to Parkinson's disease.
Detrimental to beauty
Long-term constipation, re-absorption of harmful substances, resulting in rough skin, dull, acne, pigmentation, stains, etc.
decrease in immunity
The lymph nodes in the intestine account for 70% of the body, and the intestine is the body's largest immune organ. Aging of the intestines directly leads to a decline in immunity, and diseases such as colds, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases will follow one after another. As long as the stool is regular and normal, other diseases of the body will rarely appear. This is the principle of "one pass." Therefore, constipation should not only be taken lightly, but should also be treated actively.