2021年2月19日星期五

hemorrhoids symptoms,"Anorectal Surgery Skills"/Li Chunyu, Editor-in-Chief Wang Jianping/Published by People's Medical Publishing House

    "Anorectal Surgery Skills"/Li Chunyu, Editor-in-Chief Wang Jianping/Published by People's Medical Publishing House

    Author: Li Chunyu, edited by Wang Jianping

    Publishing House: People's Medical Publishing House

    ISBN: 978-7-117-16353-8

    Publication time: June 2013

    Printing time: June 2013

    Number of copies: 3000

    Binding: Hardcover

    Edition: 1

    Open this: 16 open

    Number of pages: 635 pages

    Number of words: 1200 thousand words

    Fixed price: 188 yuan

    brief introduction

    About the Author

    Wang Jianping Male, born in 1954, Han nationality, from Wuyuan, Jiangxi, with a doctoral degree. The current executive vice president of Sun Yat-sen University (at the department level), the dean of the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangdong Gastrointestinal and Anal Hospital), professor of surgery, and doctoral supervisor. He is also a member of the American Academy of Surgery (FACS), a member of the Japanese Society of Digestive Surgery, the chairman of the Asian Enterostomy Association in China, the head of the colorectal and anal surgery group of the Chinese Medical Association, the vice president of the Guangdong Medical Association, and the vice president of the Guangdong Medical Association Chief, Group Leader of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Nutritional Support in Guangdong Province, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Editorial Board Member of Chinese Journal of Surgery, Chinese Journal of Practical Surgery, Cancer, Colorectal Surgery Editor-in-chief of the national five-year planning textbook "Surgery", and editorial board member of the national seven- or eight-year planning textbook "Surgery".

    He graduated from the Department of Medicine of the First Military Medical University in 1978, and stayed on as a surgeon in its affiliated Zhujiang Hospital. In 1982, he was admitted to the Zhongshan Medical College for a master's degree in surgery. The tutors were Professor Wang Chengen and Professor Wang Jifu. He graduated in 1985 and stayed at the school to work in the Department of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital. Received a doctorate in medicine in 1990. From March 1991 to October 1993, he went to the Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan, where he studied under Professor Yoichi Saito, the head of the Kobe University Medical Department and the President of the Japanese Society of Pancreatic Diseases. He did post-doctoral research in the Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Kobe University School of Medicine.

    Professor Wang Jianping has been working in the Department of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in 1982, under the supervision of Professor Wang Jifu, a well-known Chinese expert in gastrointestinal and pancreatic surgery. The main research area is colon, rectal and anal surgery diseases. In 2003, he established Colorectal Surgery on the basis of the professional group of Gastrointestinal Pancreatic Surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. For colorectal tumors, inflammatory bowel disease, anal benign diseases, especially for low rectal cancer, anus preservation surgery, TME and pelvic autonomic nerve protection of rectal cancer radical surgery, familial polyposis, ulcerative colitis the study. He has his own experience in the anus-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer and the treatment of local recurrence after low rectal cancer. It is the first to carry out staged liver transplantation when colorectal cancer is combined with unresectable liver metastasis, and explores to find nodules and extensive liver A new method of transfer therapy. In the past five years, nearly a hundred related academic papers have been written and published in core journals. Among them, the article "Analysis of the curative effect of low anterior resection and combined abdominal perineal resection in the treatment of middle and low rectal cancer" published in the Chinese Journal of Surgery is the treatment of rectal cancer in China Representative articles of the level. 13 national, provincial and ministerial scientific research projects have been completed and are being studied. Published the 8th edition of "Surgery" (Editor-in-Chief) five-year planning textbook, "Surgery" (Associate Editor), the 7th edition of the five-year planning textbook, "Gastrointestinal Surgery" (Editor-in-Chief), and "Anorectal Surgery" Techniques (Editor-in-Chief), Gastrointestinal Surgery (Associate Editor-in-Chief) and Stapler and Its Clinical Application (Editor-in-Chief), participated in the compilation of the sixth edition of the five-year planning textbook of Surgery, and Seven Years of Surgery There are more than 20 monographs, such as the textbooks for planning and planning, the eight-year planning textbooks for Surgery, Abdominal Surgery, New Surgery Manual, Modern Surgery, and Surgical Innovation and Accident Management.

    Book catalog

    Chapter 1 Applied Anatomy of Anorectal Colon

    Section 1 Applied Anatomy of the Anorectal Canal

    1. Applied anatomy of the anal canal

    2. Applied anatomy of rectum

    3. Muscles around the anorectal canal

    4. Space around the rectum

    Five, the anorectal blood vessels

    Six, anorectal lymphatic drainage

    Seven, anorectal nerve

    Section 2 Applied Anatomy of the Colon

    1. The morphological structure of the colon

    2. The arterial supply of the colon

    Three, the veins of the colon

    Fourth, the lymphatic drainage of the colon

    Five, the innervation of the colon

    Chapter 2 Surgical Operations and Skills of Using Surgical Instruments

    Section 1 Basic training of surgical operation

    Section 2 Commonly used surgical instruments and skills

    1. Basic surgical instruments and skills

    2. Special instruments and skills for abdominal surgery

    3. The basic instruments and skills of anal surgery

    4. Special instruments and techniques for anal surgery

    Section 3 New surgical instruments, new materials and usage skills

    1. Suture technology

    2. Abdominal closure technology

    Three, hemostatic technology

    Chapter 3 Inspection Method

    Section 1 Examination and surgical position

    Section 2 Local Anal Examination

    1. Anal inspection

    2. Digital rectal examination

    Section 3 Endoscopy

    1. Anoscopy

    2. Electronic Proctoscopy

    Three, sigmoidoscopy

    Four, fiber colonoscopy

    Section 4 Anorectal Dynamics Examination

    1. Anorectal pressure measurement

    2. Colonic transport test

    Three, defecography

    4. Balloon expulsion test

    Five, pelvic floor electromyography examination

    Section 5 Laboratory Inspection

    Section 6 Pathological examination

    Section 7 Anorectal Imaging Examination

    1. Anorectal ultrasound examination

    2. Radiological examination

    Three, CT examination

    4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Chapter 4 Preoperative Preparation and Postoperative Treatment

    Section One Preoperative Preparation

    1. Preoperative preparation for anal diseases

    2. Preoperative preparation for colon and rectal disease

    Section 2 Postoperative treatment

    1. Postoperative treatment of anal diseases

    2. Postoperative treatment of colon and rectal diseases

    Chapter 5 Treatment of Complications After Anorectal Surgery

    Section 1 Treatment of complications after anal surgery

    1. Postoperative pain

    2. Urinary retention

    Third, postoperative bleeding

    Fourth, fecal impaction

    Five, anal edge edema

    Sixth, postoperative fever

    Seven, secondary infection

    8. Delayed wound healing

    Nine, anorectal stenosis

    Ten, anal incontinence

    11. Skin defect of anal canal

    12. Syncope

    13. Postoperative swelling

    14. Glandular overflow

    Section 2 Treatment of common complications of colorectal surgery

    1. Rupture and bleeding of presacral venous plexus

    Second, ureteral injury

    3. Anastomotic stenosis

    Fourth, anastomotic fistula

    Five, sexual dysfunction

    Six, the incision is split

    7. Delayed healing of perineal incision

    Section III Treatment of Complications of Colostomy

    1. Stoma necrosis

    2. Stoma retraction

    3. Stoma prolapse

    Fourth, stoma perforation

    Five, narrow stoma

    Six, stoma bleeding

    Seven, parastoma hernia

    8. Skin diseases around the stoma

    Chapter 6 Anorectal Anesthesia and Postoperative Analgesia

    Section 1 Preparation and medication before anesthesia

    1. Preparation before anesthesia

    Second, medication before anesthesia

    Section 2 Commonly Used Anesthetics

    1. Commonly used local anesthetics

    2. Commonly used general anesthetics

    Section 3 Basic Anatomy of Anesthesia

    Section 4 Common Anesthesia Methods

    1. Local anesthesia

    Second, sacral canal block anesthesia

    3. Simplify sacral anesthesia

    Fourth, sellar anesthesia

    Five, subarachnoid block anesthesia

    Six, epidural anesthesia

    Seven, combined spinal-epidural anesthesia

    Eight, acupuncture anesthesia

    Nine, general anesthesia

    Section 5 Postoperative Analgesia

    1. Preemptive analgesia

    2. Local analgesia

    3. Epidural or sacral analgesia

    Fourth, intravenous analgesia

    Chapter 7 Nursing Skills of Anorectal Surgery

    Section One Diet Nursing

    1. Types of diet

    2. Matters needing attention in diet and nursing

    Section 2 Psychological Nursing

    Section 3 Perioperative Nursing

    1. Preoperative care

    2. Intraoperative care

    3. Postoperative care

    Section 4 Discharge Health Guidance

    Chapter 8 Surgical Techniques for Congenital Anorectal Malformations

    Section 1 Anal membranous atresia incision

    Section 2 Perineal Anoplasty

    Section 3 Low Fistula Anoplasty

    Section 4 Posterior sagittal incision rectal anoplasty

    Section 5 Anoplasty of sacral perineum (pulled out of the puborectal muscle ring)

    Section 6 Anterior abdominal perineum (transpuborectalis) anoplasty

    Chapter 9 Hemorrhoid surgery techniques

    Section 1 Internal Hemorrhoid Surgery Skills

    1. Insertion of internal hemorrhoids

    2. Internal hemorrhoid injection

    3. Ligation of internal hemorrhoids

    Fourth, internal hemorrhoid ligation

    Five, internal hemorrhoids and anus expansion

    Sixth, internal hemorrhoidectomy (closed surgery)

    Seven, ligation and suspension of hemorrhoids

    8. Incarcerated internal hemorrhoid surgery

    Section 2 External hemorrhoid surgery techniques

    1. Removal of external hemorrhoids

    2. External hemorrhoidectomy

    3. External hemorrhoid resection and suture

    The third section, mixed hemorrhoid surgery skills

    1. External stripping and internal ligation

    2. Mixed hemorrhoidectomy

    3. Mixed hemorrhoids preserved dental floss

    The fourth section, ring hemorrhoid surgery skills

    1. Segmented ligation

    Second, segmented tooth ligation

    3. Improved segmented ligation

    Section 5 PPH surgical techniques

    Section 7 CRH Surgical Techniques

    Section 8 TST surgical techniques

    Chapter 10 Surgical Techniques for Perianal Abscess

    Section 1 Incision and drainage

    Section 2 Incision and Internal Surgery

    Section 3 Incision and Thread Hanging

    Section 4 Abscess incision and suture

    Section 5 One-time radical resection with sphincter preservation

    Section 6 Incision and drainage of internal mouth resection and sealing

    Chapter 11 Anal Fistula Surgery Skills

    Section 1 Overview

    Section 2 Sphincter sphincter surgery skills

    1. Anal fistula incision

    2. Anal fistula resection and suture

    Three, anal fistula thread hanging surgery

    4. Anal fistula incision and threading

    Section 3 Preserving sphincter surgery skills

    Section 4 Surgical skills for special types of anal fistula

    Chapter 12 Anal Fissure Surgery Techniques

    Section 1 Anal Fissure Resection

    Section 2 Anal Fissure Thread Hanging

    Section 3 Internal Sphincterotomy

    Section 4 Longitudinal and transverse suture of anal fissure

    Section 5 Resection of anal fissure with pedicle flap advancement

    Chapter 13 Surgical Techniques for Anorectal Stenosis

    The first section   anal canal stenosis incision

    Section Two: Longitudinal and transverse suture for anal stenosis

    The third section   anal canal stenosis Y-V flap plasty

    The fourth section: multi-point incision drug injection for rectal stricture

    Section 5  Rectal stricture

    Section 6 Scar Resection of Rectal Stenosis

    Section 7 Posterior Incision of Rectal Stenosis

    Section 8 Longitudinal and transverse suture for rectal stricture

    Chapter 14 Surgical Techniques for Anal Incontinence

    Section 1 Anal Circumcision

    Section 2 Anal Tightening

    Section 3 Anal Sphincter Repair

    1. End-to-end suture

    2. Circumcision and transverse suture

    Section 4 Rectovaginal Septum Repair (Perineal Suture)

    Section 5 Pelvic floor repair behind anus

    Section 6 Anal Sphincter Folding

    1. Front anal sphincter folding

    2. Transvaginal external sphincter folding

    Section 7 Anal Sphincteroplasty

    1. Sphincteroplasty with gracilis transplantation

    2. Gluteal muscle transplantation sphincteroplasty

    Section 8 S-shaped skin patch anal canal plasty

    Chapter 15 Surgical techniques for anal pruritus

    1. Itchy skin injection

    Second, pruritus skin resection

    3. Resection and suture of itchy skin

    4. Perianal subcutaneous nerve termination

    Chapter 16 Surgical Techniques of Anal Condyloma Acuminatum

    1. Resection of condyloma acuminatum

    2. Cautery of condyloma acuminatum

    Chapter 17 Surgical Techniques for Anorectal Injury

    Section 1 Rectal injury above peritoneal reflex

    1. Rectal injury and damage distance from the anal edge ≤ 9cm

    2. Rectal injury and damage distance ≥ 10cm from the anal edge

    3. Rectal injury above peritoneal reflex (other complications)

    Section 2 Rectal injury below the peritoneal reflex and above the levator ani muscle

    1. Large damage area and long damage time

    2. Small damage area and short damage time

    Section 3 Anal sphincter and surrounding skin injury below the levator ani muscle

    Chapter 18 Surgical Techniques for Anorectal Foreign Body

    Chapter 19 Surgical Techniques for Benign Perianal Tumors

    1. Resection of perianal sebaceous cyst

    2. Resection of perianal lipoma and fibroma

    Chapter 20 Surgical Techniques for Anal Canal Cancer

    Section 1 Local Resection

    Section 2 Combined transabdominal and perineal resection, sigmoid colostomy

    Section 3 Combined columnar transabdominal resection and sigmoid colostomy

    Section 4 Inguinal lymph node dissection

    1. Superficial groin lymph node dissection

    2. Deep group (iliac-groin) lymph node dissection

    Section 5 Colostomy

    Chapter 21 Surgical Techniques for Perianal Cancer

    The first section, local resection

    Section 2 Abdominal Perineum Combined Rectal Cancer Surgery

    Section 3 Inguinal lymph node dissection

    Chapter 22 Surgical Techniques for Rectal Prolapse

    Section One Transanal Surgery

    1. Injection

    Two, rectal mucosal ligation

    Three, anal constriction

    Four, full-thickness rectal prolapse triple surgery

    5. Circumcision of prolapse and hemorrhoids

    6. Intrarectal scar support and fixation

    7. Resection and repair of rectal prolapsed tissue

    Eight, rectal mucosal in situ fixation

    Nine, anoplasty

    Section 2 Transsacral Surgery

    1. Posterior rectal wall adhesion

    2. Transsacral rectal suture fixation

    Third, transsacral rectal fixation

    Section 3 Transabdominal Surgery

    1. Anterior rectal suspension fixation (Ripstein operation)

    2. Posterior rectal suspension and fixation (Well surgery)

    Three, Orr surgery

    Fourth, anterior rectal fixation (Nigro surgery)

    Five, retrorectal fixation

    Sixth, transabdominal enlarged rectal fixation

    Seven, anterior rectal wall folding surgery (Shen Kefei surgery)

    Eight, sigmoid colon resection

    Nine, fixed sigmoid colectomy (Frykman operation)

    Section 4 Laparoscopic Surgery

    Chapter 23 Surgical techniques for rectal villous adenoma

    Section 1 Transanal resection and suture

    Section 2 Transsacral resection and suture

    Section 3 High-frequency electrical snare resection of adenoma

    Chapter 24 Surgery Techniques for Rectal Cancer

    Section 1 Local resection of rectal cancer

    1. Transanal local resection

    2. Local resection of sacrococcygeal approach

    3. Transsphincter local resection

    Section 2 Resection of Abdominal Perineum and Rectal Cancer (Miles Operation)

    Section 3 Anterior resection of the rectum (Dixon operation)

    Section 4 Transabdominal resection of rectal cancer, colostomy

    Section 5 Rectal Resection, Colon-anal Anastomosis

    Section 6 Transabdominal resection of the rectum, delayed anastomosis of the colon through anus

    Section VII Transabdominal transanal intersphincterectomy for low rectal cancer, colon-anal anastomosis (ISR)

    Chapter 25 Anus Preserving Surgery Techniques for Rectal Cancer

    Chapter 26 In Situ Artificial Anus Reconstruction

    The first section gracilis muscle in situ anorectal reconstruction

    Section 2 In situ anorectal reconstruction with pedicled gluteus maximus

    Chapter 27 Surgical Techniques of Rectovaginal Fistula

    Section 1 Overview

    1. Cause

    Two, classification

    3. Clinical manifestations

    Four, diagnosis points

    Five, differential diagnosis

    Six, treatment principles

    Seven, preoperative evaluation

    Section 2 Perineal rectal incision

    Section 3 Transvaginal centrifugal separation of the vaginal rectal space with purse-string suture of the rectum

    Section 4 Transvaginal centripetal separation and turnover suture, centrifugal separation and embedding suture

    Section 5 Tait operation for suture of fistula through perineal separation

    Chapter 28 Surgical Techniques for One Point Anal Deformity

    Section 1 Abdominal perineum anus, vagina and urethroplasty

    The second part of the urethra vaginal drag surgery

    Chapter 29 Surgical Techniques for Hirschsprung's Disease

    Section One Hirschsprung's Extraction Radical Operation

    Section 2 Laparoscopy-assisted radical resection of Hirschsprung's colon

    Section Three Classic Hirschsprung's Radical Surgery

    1. Drag-out rectosigmoid colectomy (modified Swenson method)

    Second, rectal resection and colon drag-out surgery (Duhamel method)

    Third, the rectal mucosa is removed and the colon is pulled out (Soave method)

    4. Transabdominal colorectal resection (Rehbein method)

    5. Side-to-side anastomosis of ileum and descending colon after colectomy (Martin method)

    6. Side-to-side anastomosis of ascending colon and ileum (Boley method)

    Chapter 30 Surgical techniques for colonic slow transit constipation

    Section 1 Total colon resection, ileal rectal anastomosis

    Section 2 Subtotal Colonectomy

    1. Subtotal colon resection, ascending colorectal anastomosis

    2. Subtotal colonectomy, cecal rectal anastomosis

    3. Subtotal colon resection, ileosigmoid colon anastomosis

    Section 3 Colon Exclusion

    1. Cecal-rectal anastomosis

    2. Ileorectal (sigmoid colon) anastomosis

    Chapter 31 Surgical Techniques for Outlet Obstructive Constipation

    Section 1 Rectal protrusion surgery

    1. Transrectal Protrusion Closed Repair (Block) Surgery

    2. Rectal mucosal resection with forceps suture repair

    Three, rectal mucosal incision and repair

    4. Transvaginal incision and repair of rectal protrusion

    5. Dilun patch rectal protrusion repair

    Section 2 Internal rectal prolapse surgery

    1. Rectal mucosal ligation

    2. Vertical folding of rectal mucosa and injection of sclerotherapy

    3. Perirectal injection

    Fourth, stapler rectal mucosal circumcision and nailing (PPH)

    Five, modified Delorme surgery

    Section 3 Puborectal Syndrome Surgery

    1. Partial puborectectomy

    2. Post-puborectalis incision and thread-drawing

    3. Posterior puborectectomy

    Section 4 Internal sphincter achalasia

    Chapter 32 Colorectal polyp surgery techniques

    Section 1 Endoscopic removal of colorectal polyps

    Section 2 Colon and rectal polyps laparotomy plus endoscopic removal

    Section 3 Transanorectal polypectomy

    Section 4 Transsacral and rectal polypectomy

    Section 5 Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR)

    Section 6 Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)

    Chapter 33 Surgical Techniques for Black Spot Polyp Syndrome

    Section 1 Laparotomy of multiple small bowel polyps plus endoscopic removal of small bowel incision

    Section 2 Laparotomy plus small bowel intussusception resection for multiple small bowel polyps

    Chapter 34 Surgical Techniques for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Chapter 35 Surgical Techniques for Ulcerative Colitis

    Section 1 Total colorectal resection, permanent ileostomy

    Section 2 Total colon resection, ileal rectal anastomosis

    Section 3 Colorectal subtotal resection, ascending colorectal anastomosis

    Section 4 Total colorectal resection, ileal pouch anal canal anastomosis (Pouch operation)

    Chapter 36 Surgical Techniques for Crohn's Disease

    Chapter 37 Colonic volvulus surgery techniques

    Chapter 38 Surgical Techniques for Colonic Diverticulum

    The first stage of colon resection and anastomosis

    Section 2 Colectomy and Anastomosis, Proximal Stoma

    Section 3 Colectomy and Anastomosis, Colonic Shunt

    Section 4 Hartmann surgery

    Section 5 Three-stage sigmoidectomy

    Chapter 39 Surgical Techniques for Colon Injury

    Section 1 Colonic perforation suture and cecal stoma

    Section 2 Partial resection of cecum and ascending colon injury, one-stage anastomosis

    Section 3 Intraoperative bowel lavage for left colon injury, one-stage resection and anastomosis

    Section 4 External stoma on colon injury

    Section 5 Colostomy

    One, cecum stoma

    2. Transverse colostomy

    Three, sigmoid colostomy

    Chapter 40 Surgical techniques for colorectal benign tumors

    Chapter 41 Colorectal Carcinoid Surgical Techniques

    Section 1 Transanal Resection of Rectal Carcinoid

    Section 2 Right Hemicolectomy

    Section 3 Left Hemicolectomy

    The fourth section (low position) anterior resection

    Section 5 Combined Transabdominal and Perineal Resection

    Section VI Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM)

    Chapter 42 Colon Cancer Surgical Techniques

    Section 1 Right Hemicolectomy

    Section 2 Transverse Colon Resection

    Section 3 Left Hemicolectomy

    Section 4 Enlarged right hemicolectomy

    Section 5 Sigmoidectomy

    Section VI Surgery for obstructive left colon cancer

    Chapter 43 Colostomy Surgical Techniques

    Section one cecal stoma

    Section 2 Transverse Colon Loop Stoma

    Section Three Loop Stoma of Sigmoid Colon

    Section 4 Single cavity sigmoid colon stoma

    Section 5 Occult Colostomy

    Section VI Closure of Colostomy

    Chapter 44 Surgical techniques for liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    Chapter 45 Surgical techniques for rare malignant tumors in the rectum and anal canal

    Chapter 46 Presacral Tumor Surgery Skills

    Section 1 Local tumor resection

    Section 2 Tumor plus sacrococcygeal resection

    Section 3 Combined Abdominal Sacral Resection

    Chapter 47 Surgical techniques for sacrococcygeal teratoma

    The first section phenotypic teratoma resection

    Section 2 Resection of Invisible Teratoma

    Chapter 48 Surgical Techniques for Tibetan Hair Sinus and Tibetan Hair Follicle

    Section 1 Incision and drainage

    Section 2 Cyst and sinus resection, wound opening

    Section 3 Cyst Resection and Stage I Suture

    Section 4 Partial sinus resection and suture

    Section 5 Bag suture

    Section VI Flap Transfer

    Chapter 49 Surgical Techniques for Perianal Fatal Fasciitis

    Chapter 50 Surgical Techniques for Perianal Hidradenitis Suppurative

    Chapter 51 Surgical Techniques for Other Anal Diseases

    1. Resection of anal papillitis and hypertrophy

    Two, anal sinusitis surgery

    Three, anal papilloma surgery

    4. Resection of perianal endometriosis

    Five, anal wart burning excision

    6. Cautery resection of anal verrucous tuberculosis

    Chapter 52 Anorectal Outpatient Surgery Skills

    Chapter 53: The use of stapler in colorectal cancer surgery

    Section 1 Types of staplers in colorectal cancer surgery

    I. Overview

    Second, the stapler classification

    The second section of colorectal cancer resection surgery stapling skills

    The third section of laparoscopic colon tumor resection surgery stapler use skills

    Section 4 Skills of using stapler for laparoscopic resection of rectal tumor

    Chapter 54 Laparoscopic surgery techniques for the colon and rectum

    Section 1 Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy

    Section 2 Laparoscopic left colectomy

    Section 3 Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colectomy

    Section 4 Laparoscopic total colectomy

    Section 5 Laparoscopic rectal cancer anus preservation surgery

    Section 6 Laparoscopic Miles Surgery for Rectal Cancer

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