1. What is the prostate?
The prostate is an organ unique to men. The normal prostate is the size of a chestnut, the bottom is facing up, it is attached to the bladder, the tip is down, and the urogenital diaphragm is attached, the front is attached to the pubic symphysis, and the back is attached to the rectum. Therefore, when there is prostatic hyperplasia, you can do a digital rectal examination to feel the back of the prostate. . The urethra passes through the middle of the prostate gland. Therefore, when prostate hyperplasia occurs, the urethra will be compressed and urination will be affected first.
2. What is prostate hyperplasia (enlarged prostate)?
Prostatic hyperplasia is certainly not unfamiliar to most men, especially older men. Many male friends have serious or mild prostatic hyperplasia problems, but the understanding of prostatic hyperplasia is still somewhat conscious Vague, so today I will popularize the popular science knowledge of BPH.
The so-called benign prostatic hyperplasia is the pathological hyperplasia of the glands caused by the influence of hormone levels in the prostate tissue. It is a benign proliferative disease. After prostatic hyperplasia, the urethra is compressed and the bladder is stimulated. Bladder irritation (frequent urination, urgency, night Frequent urination) and urination obstruction (difficult urination, intermittent urination, dripping after urine). Many patients simply think that the number of nocturias is normal when they are older due to lack of scientific knowledge of prostate hyperplasia, but they did not expect that it is prostate hyperplasia. They neglected to go to the hospital for timely treatment, which delayed the best treatment time for a long time. Delay in diagnosis and treatment often results in a large amount of residual urine, urinary tract infection, hematuria, and urinary calculi. In severe cases, the course of the disease can lead to chronic renal insufficiency and uremia.
3. What are the symptoms of male prostate hyperplasia ((enlarged prostate)?
Elderly men over the age of 50 should be vigilant. After your prostate is enlarged (hypertrophy), the following phenomena will often occur:
① Frequent urination is often the first symptom, more obvious at night. In the early stage, it is caused by hyperemia and stimulation of the prostate. As the obstruction worsens, the residual urine volume increases, the effective bladder capacity decreases, and the frequency of urination becomes more obvious.
②Difficulty urinating. Progressive dysuria is the most important symptom of prostate hyperplasia and its development is slow. Mild obstruction, delayed urination, intermittent, and dripping after urine. In severe cases, urination is laborious, the range is shortened, and the urine line is thin and weak, and it eventually becomes dripping.
③ Urinary retention (inability to urinate), any stage of prostate hyperplasia can cause sudden hyperemia, edema, and acute urinary retention in the prostate due to cold, fatigue, and alcohol intake.
④Other symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause painless hematuria due to local hyperemia. If infection or stones are complicated, bladder irritation such as urgency and pain may occur. A small number of severe cases may have hydronephrosis and renal insufficiency.
4. What kind of tests are needed to diagnose BPH?
If diagnosed with prostate hyperplasia, the following checks are required.
① B-ultrasound can measure the volume of the prostate and check the internal structure to see if it protrudes into the bladder. Transrectal ultrasound scanning is more accurate, and transabdominal ultrasound can measure residual urine volume.
②Urodynamic examination and measurement of urine flow rate can preliminarily judge the obstruction; if the maximum urine flow rate is less than 15ml/s, it means urination is not smooth; <10ml/s means that the obstruction is serious and must be treated. To assess the maximum urine flow rate, urination must exceed 150ml to be meaningful.
③Determination of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA)
When the prostate is large, there are nodules or indurations, it must be measured to rule out the possibility of prostate cancer.
5. When does prostate hyperplasia need surgery?
If your prostate hyperplasia progresses to the following extent, surgery is often required.
①Symptoms such as dysuria, frequent urination, and urgency gradually worsen and affect the quality of life.
② In severe cases, complications such as urinary retention, hematuria, bladder stones, and hydronephrosis may even occur.
③The residual urine exceeds 50ml.
④ Difficulty urinating with complications such as hernia and prolapse.
6. What is the most advanced minimally invasive surgery for prostate hyperplasia?
The green laser prostate disease treatment system is recognized as one of the safest, most advanced and most effective methods in the world, and is known as the "gold standard" for the treatment of prostate disease in the 21st century. Thanks to the combination of advanced equipment and perfect technology, the operation can be completed in a short time under minimal invasiveness, and the surgical indication can be relaxed to a large extent. Many patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy) who cannot tolerate surgical treatment in the past have been treated satisfactorily. There are glands of more than 200g at home and abroad, and elderly and high-risk patients over 90 years old receive green laser PVP surgery. It is relatively safe, basically without complications, and is an ideal minimally invasive surgical treatment for elderly and high-risk prostate hyperplasia (hypertrophy) patients.
The therapy is less traumatic. Use the human body's natural orifice-the urethra, and the body surface is non-invasive. During treatment, the green laser fiber uses the cystoscope to directly reach the hyperplastic prostate that blocks the urinary tract, and then the doctor manipulates the green laser to gradually vaporize the hyperplastic prostate that blocks the urinary tract and open the urinary tract. The penetration depth of each treatment of the green laser is only 800 microns, which will not damage normal tissues, so the trauma is minimal.
This therapy has less bleeding. During treatment, the green laser will first seal the blood vessels in the hyperplastic prostate tissue, so that there is little or no bleeding during the treatment. Some patients will have a small amount of blood oozing after the operation. Under normal circumstances, the bleeding can stop by itself without treatment.
This therapy has a short hospital stay. If the patient is in good health and has no other chronic diseases, under normal circumstances, the patient can be treated after the routine preoperative examination is completed, and he can get out of bed on the day of treatment, and he can be discharged after observation for 3-5 days. The entire treatment process only requires About a week.
8. How to reduce the incidence of urinary retention caused by prostate hyperplasia?
① Avoid spicy food. Spicy and irritating foods can not only cause congestion of the sexual organs, but also aggravate the symptoms of hemorrhoids and constipation, compress the prostate, and aggravate dysuria.
② Do not hold back your urine excessively. Holding back urine can cause overfilling of the bladder, weaken the tension of the bladder detrusor, difficulty in urination, and it is easy to induce acute urinary retention. Therefore, it is necessary to urinate when there is urine.
③Pay attention to cold and warm. From the end of autumn to the beginning of spring, the weather is volatile, and cold tends to aggravate the condition. Therefore, patients must pay attention to cold protection, prevent colds and upper respiratory tract infections.
⑤ Avoid alcohol. Drinking can cause congestion and edema of the prostate and bladder neck and induce urinary retention.
⑥ Avoid sedentary sitting. Sitting for a long time will aggravate hemorrhoids and other diseases, and easily congest the perineum and cause dysuria. Frequent participation in cultural and sports activities and qigong exercises can help reduce symptoms.
9. What is prostatitis?
Prostatitis refers to local and systemic symptoms caused by acute or chronic inflammation caused by non-specific infection of the prostate.
Generally divided into four types: Type I: acute bacterial prostatitis. Type II: Chronic bacterial prostatitis. Type III: chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. Type ⅢA: chronic non-bacterial inflammatory prostatitis. Type ⅢB: chronic non-bacterial non-inflammatory prostatitis. Type IV: asymptomatic prostatitis.
Chronic prostatitis (CP), also known as chronic prostatitis-like syndrome, is a group of syndromes, a common and frequently-occurring disease in urology, including type II, type III and type IV. According to statistics from Europe and the United States, The adult pathological incidence rate can reach 35%-98%, and the clinical incidence rate in the general male population may reach 5%-8.8%. There are 2 million patients with chronic prostatitis in the United States each year. According to domestic data, the pathological incidence rate is about 24.3%. The first peak of onset is 30-39 years old, about 34.4%, and the other peak is 60-69 years old, with an incidence rate of about 36.4%.
The clinical course of chronic prostatitis is a gradual and complex process, with more sexual dysfunction, changes in fertility, long-term dull pain, changes in urination, changes in neuropsychology, etc., which can affect marriage and family Therefore, prostatitis is not only a medical problem, but also a serious social problem.
10. What are the symptoms of chronic prostatitis?
Chronic prostatitis has complex etiology and different symptoms, which are generally divided into three major aspects: systemic symptoms, local symptoms and functional changes. It may not be all in every patient, but some of them are different depending on the type of disease, and each has its own set of symptoms.
Systemic symptoms include: chills, general weakness, fatigue, insomnia, nervous depression, etc. In severe cases, they often have mental symptoms, chattering and groaning.
Local symptoms include: prostate and perineum pain, painful ejaculation, pelvic pain, lower abdomen falling sensation, urethral ants walking, genital cold and itching, pathological secretions of the urethra, blood sperm, interrupted urination, changes in the urethra after the seminal caruncle, Seminal vesicle changes, rectal pain and other symptoms. Changes in the size and hardness of the prostate, increased white blood cells and decreased phospholipid bodies in the prostate fluid.
Male functional changes: weakened erection hardness, premature ejaculation, unsatisfactory orgasm, pathological (painful) orgasm, decreased libido, changes in the number of ejaculation, spontaneous abortion, infertility, sperm pathological changes (decreased sperm or increased abnormal sperm).