When we have colorectal diseases such as abdominal pain, constipation, blood in the stool, and changes in stool characteristics, colonoscopy appears in order to make a clear and effective diagnosis and timely symptomatic treatment. Colonoscopy can sequentially and clearly observe the mucosal state of the anal canal, rectum, sigmoid colon, colon, and ileocecal region, and can perform pathological and cytological examinations of the living body. If necessary, colonoscopy treatment can be given to avoid surgery surgery.
How do we prepare for colonoscopy?
1. Intestinal preparation: The patient takes 2000ml of polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder solution (taken within 2 hours) 5 hours before the colonoscopy to clean the intestine and discharge the stool in the intestine. The cleanliness of the bowel is a key factor affecting the success or failure of colonoscopy. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a safe and effective bowel preparation method.
2. Take off your pants and lie down on the examination table.
3. The doctor inserts a thin tube with a camera lens into the intestine from the anus, and pushes it in continuously after insertion. As the intestines may be expanded during advancing, so that the colonoscope can enter, there is a strong feeling of abdominal distension at this time.
4. When the colonoscopy reaches the inspection site, in the computer monitor on the side, both the doctor and the patient can observe the situation inside the intestine. If necessary, the doctor will use colonoscopy to take a sample of the intestine for the next step of biopsy.
Colonoscopic manifestations of normal colonic mucosa and common colorectal diseases.
Who needs colonoscopy?
Those who have symptoms such as blood in the stool, melena, or long-term stool occult blood test positive;
Those with mucus, pus and blood in stool;
People with frequent bowel movements, unformed stools, or diarrhea;
Those who have had difficulty defecation or have irregular bowel movements recently;
Stools become thin and deformed;
People with long-term abdominal pain and bloating;
Unexplained weight loss or wasting;
People with unexplained anemia;
Unexplained abdominal masses, who need a clear diagnosis;
Unexplained elevated CEA;
Long-term chronic constipation, who cannot be cured for a long time;
Chronic colitis, long-term medication, long-term treatment does not heal;
Suspected colon tumor, but negative barium enema X-ray examination;
CT or other examinations of the abdomen found thickening of the bowel wall, and colorectal cancer needs to be excluded.
For lower gastrointestinal bleeding, bleeding lesions can be found, the cause of bleeding can be determined, and endoscopic hemostasis can be treated if necessary.
Patients who have had schistosomiasis, ulcerative colitis and other diseases.
Colonoscopy should be reviewed regularly after colorectal cancer surgery. Patients after colorectal cancer surgery generally need a colonoscopy every 6 months to 1 year. If the colonoscopy fails to examine all the colon due to colonic obstruction before surgery, colonoscopy should be performed 3 months after the surgery to determine whether there are colon polyps or colon cancer in other parts.
Those who have been found to have colon polyps and need to be removed under colonoscopy;
Colonoscopy needs to be reviewed regularly after colorectal polyps. Colorectal polyps may recur after surgery and should be reviewed regularly. Villiform adenoma, serrated adenoma, and high-grade epithelioma polyps are prone to recurrence and cancer. It is recommended to review colonoscopy every 3-6 months. For other polyps, it is generally recommended to review the colonoscopy every 12 months. If the colonoscopy is negative after the recheck, recheck after 3 years.
People with a family history of colorectal cancer should undergo a colonoscopy: if one person in the family has colorectal cancer, even if his immediate family members (parents, children, siblings) do not have any symptoms or discomfort, they should undergo a physical examination for colonoscopy. A large number of studies have proved that if a person has colorectal cancer, the probability of his immediate family members (parents, children, siblings) getting colorectal cancer is 2-3 times that of the normal population. Many of the colorectal cancer patients admitted to our department have parents who have colorectal cancer. After a few years, it was discovered that their children, siblings and siblings had colorectal cancer again, so we should pay special attention to it.
People with a family history of colorectal polyps also need colonoscopy.
People over the age of 40, especially those who have a long-term high-protein and high-fat diet and long-term alcoholism, are best to undergo a colonoscopy routine physical examination to detect asymptomatic early colorectal cancer as soon as possible.
1. Blood in the stool ≠ hemorrhoids! The incidence of hemorrhoids is very high, and blood in the stool is the most common clinical manifestation of hemorrhoids, so many people think that blood in the stool is caused by hemorrhoids. This view is extremely wrong, because many other diseases can also cause blood in the stool, such as colon cancer, rectal cancer, anal fissure, and rectal hemangioma.
2. Hematochezia is the most important clinical manifestation of colorectal cancer. At the same time, blood in the stool is also a common symptom of dozens of anorectal diseases such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and enteritis. Therefore, it is impossible to determine the true cause of the disease based on blood in the stool. When hematochezia and melena recur, go to a regular hospital for colonoscopy in time to avoid delay in diagnosis.
3. Hemorrhoids will not cause rectal cancer, but hemorrhoids can be accompanied by rectal cancer at the same time. Hemorrhoids are a benign disease that will not evolve into rectal cancer, but patients who have hemorrhoids can also get rectal cancer. It should be taken seriously.
4. Patients with hemorrhoids with blood in the stool should be highly suspected of rectal cancer. The main symptoms of hemorrhoids and rectal cancer are blood in the stool. Some patients have a history of hemorrhoids, so as long as they have blood in the stool, they are considered to be bleeding from hemorrhoids. The blood in the stool caused by rectal cancer will also get better after hemorrhoid suppository treatment, but after a period of time, blood in the stool will appear again, recurring, and it will not heal for a long time. At this time, you should go to a regular hospital as soon as possible for digital rectal examination and colonoscopy to rule out the possibility of colorectal cancer.