1. High incidence
Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system that seriously endangers human health. In recent years, its morbidity and mortality have shown a rapid upward trend worldwide. Its morbidity ranks third in malignant tumors, and its mortality ranks fourth in malignant tumors. According to the data released by the World Health Organization IARC, there were 120,000 new cases of colorectal cancer worldwide in 2008, and deaths accounted for half of the incidence. In China, with the changes in living environment and eating habits, the mortality rate of colorectal cancer has also increased rapidly. The incidence of colorectal cancer in China has reached the world average level, the incidence rate is the fourth in malignant tumors, and the mortality rate is the first. Five, and in Beijing, the incidence has ranked second in male malignant tumors.
2. Who should be alert to the occurrence of colorectal cancer?
Early detection and early treatment are the principles of diagnosis and treatment for all cancer patients. According to the authoritative SEER data from the United States, the 5-year survival rate of colorectal cancer with localized tumors is as high as 90.1%, while that of patients with regional lymph node metastasis is 71.2%, and those with distant liver and lung metastasis are only 13.5%. Early detection and early diagnosis and treatment can be seen. How important. However, the current early diagnosis does not seem optimistic. According to data, the earliest stage I colorectal cancer in China accounts for only 11.8%, and the United States accounts for 39%. It is difficult to detect colorectal cancer early. The important reason is that colorectal tumors have no specific symptoms in the early stage, and it is difficult for patients to choose to go to the hospital based on their symptoms. However, some people, who are at high risk of colorectal cancer, should be more vigilant about the occurrence of colorectal cancer. Even if there are no symptoms, they need to take the initiative to do some regular checks, including stool occult blood, colonoscopy, etc. For patients over 40 years old, the following conditions occur It is necessary to be highly vigilant about the possibility of rectal cancer, and be sure to seek medical attention in time: first-degree relatives have a history of colorectal cancer; have a history of intestinal polyps, adenomas, or cancer; have persistent positive stool occult blood; have a history of mucus blood in the stool, chronic constipation, and chronic diarrhea. We recommend that patients with conditions should undergo colonoscopy once a year.
3. What are the common symptoms of colorectal cancer?
The colorectal is the collective name of the colon and the rectum, and is generally divided into the right colon (cecum, ascending colon, right side of the transverse colon), left colon (left side of the transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon) and rectum. The patient’s performance varies depending on the tumor site. Patients with right colon cancer may have early loose stools, with increased frequency. As the tumor grows, diarrhea and constipation will alternate; tumor ulceration, bleeding and malnutrition can cause anemia in patients , Anemia of unknown cause is also the point we need to be vigilant about. Because the symptoms are hidden and undetected in time, many patients can feel the mass in the right abdomen. For patients with left colon tumors, since the left colon is thinner than the right colon, and the stool to the left colon has been partially "processed" by the large intestine, and most of the water has been absorbed, the stool water content is relatively low. Therefore, symptoms such as difficulty in defecation, blood in the stool, mucus, and intestinal obstruction can appear in the early stage of tumor growth. In addition, the amount of bleeding from left colon cancer is relatively small, usually bright red, and symptoms of malnutrition and anemia are rarely seen in the early stage. The characteristics of the two also determine that the early detection rate of left colon cancer is higher than that of the right half. For rectal cancer, the symptoms are more obvious, which can be blood in the stool, frequent stools, variable frequency, incompleteness, etc., blood in the stool is the most common, accounting for 80% of the symptoms of rectal cancer. The important point is the need for blood in the stool for rectal cancer. In the identification of hemorrhoids, do not easily think that your blood in the stool is hemorrhoids, and there is no need to worry about rectal cancer because of blood in the stool. So what is the difference between blood in the stool of rectal cancer and hemorrhoids? Simply put: the characteristics of blood in the stool of rectal cancer are: mucus dark red blood in the stool, mixed with blood in the stool; and hemorrhoid bleeding is characterized by: dripping or spraying blood, and separation of blood in the stool.
4. Should I see gastroenterology or gastrointestinal surgery for the above symptoms?
This is usually a problem for the common people. First of all, you need to know the business scope of internal medicine and surgery. Gastroenterology treats diseases, including diarrhea, enteritis, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and drug treatment for ulcer diseases. Generally speaking, gastroenterology uses drugs to treat Department of gastrointestinal diseases. The gastrointestinal surgery (some units are divided into general surgery or colorectal surgery) is a department that uses surgery to treat gastrointestinal diseases. If the above symptoms occur, you should first go to gastrointestinal surgery to rule out the possibility of tumors through examinations. Patients who are diagnosed with tumors should go to surgery. The basic treatment for colorectal cancer is surgery. Most tumors can be cured by surgery. Of course, some early-stage cancers are accurately staged, and it is recommended to go to the gastroenterology department for colonoscopy.
About the Author
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital