★ Hemorrhoids are soft venous clusters formed by enlarged varicose veins under the mucous membrane of the rectum and under the skin of the anal canal. This disease occurs mostly in adults over 20 years old, and rarely occurs in children. According to the different parts of the disease, it is divided into internal hemorrhoids, external hemorrhoids and mixed hemorrhoids.
●Internal hemorrhoids Refers to the soft venous cluster formed by the expansion of varicose and congestion of the internal hemorrhoidal venous plexus under the mucosa of the rectum above the dentate line of the anus. It is the most common disease in anorectal diseases. It usually occurs at 3, 7, and 11 points of the lithotomy position, which is also called the mother hemorrhoid area. The internal hemorrhoids that occur in other parts are all called sub-hemorrhoids. It is characterized by blood in the stool, prolapse of hemorrhoids, and anal discomfort.
●External hemorrhoids It occurs below the dentate line and is a disease caused by enlarged varicose external hemorrhoidal venous plexus or rupture of external hemorrhoidal venous plexus or repeated proliferation of inflammatory fibers. Its surface is covered by skin and it is not easy to bleed. It is characterized by conscious anal swelling, pain, and foreign body sensation. Due to the different clinical symptoms and pathological characteristics and processes, they can be divided into varicose external hemorrhoids, thrombotic external hemorrhoids and connective tissue external hemorrhoids.
1. External connective tissue hemorrhoids refers to the repeated stimulation of acute and chronic inflammation that causes connective tissue hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the skin of the anal fold, and there are no varicose veins in the hemorrhoids. Including sentinel hemorrhoids and epidermal hemorrhoids Anal foreign body sensation is its main symptom.
2. Varicose external hemorrhoids are soft masses formed on the anal margin due to enlarged varicose venous plexus under the dentate line. The main symptom is anal bulging discomfort
3. Thrombotic external hemorrhoids refer to blood clots formed by rupture of the external hemorrhoid veins and blood accumulation under the skin. It is characterized by sudden severe pain in the anus and dark purple blood clots. It usually occurs at 3 or 9 o'clock in the bladder lithotomy position.
●Mixed hemorrhoids refers to the varicose veins of the internal and external hemorrhoids in the same orientation, communicating and anastomosing each other, so that the internal and external hemorrhoids form a whole. It mostly occurs at 3.7.11 o'clock in the cutting position, and the most common is at 11 o'clock. There are dual symptoms of internal and external hemorrhoids.
★Polyps and hemorrhoids refer to neoplasms on the mucous membrane of the rectum and are a common benign rectal tumor. Its clinical features are: the pedicle of the tumor is small and tender, its color is bright red, and bleeding after stool. It is divided into two types: single and multiple. The former is more common in children, and the latter is more common in young adults. Polyps are mostly adenomatous. Many polyps accumulate in one or all sections of the large intestine, which is called polyposis. Some patients can become cancerous, especially multiple polyps become more malignant.
★Anal cryptitis is an acute and chronic inflammatory disease that occurs in anal crypts and anal flaps. It is also called anal sinusitis. It is often complicated by anal papillitis and anal papillary hypertrophy. It is characterized by anal discomfort and anal moist discharge. Anal cryptitis is an important cause of perianal purulent disease, so it has positive significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of this disease
★Anal carbuncle is an abscess formed by acute and chronic infection in the space around the anorectal canal. It is equivalent to the anorectal abscess in modern medicine. Due to the different parts of the disease, it can have different names, such as paraanal subcutaneous abscess, ischiorectal space abscess, pelvic rectal space abscess. Traditional Chinese medicine also has different names for this disease, such as dirty poison, hanging carbuncle, sitting horse carbuncle, straddle Ma carbuncle and so on. It is characterized by frequent suddenness, severe pain, high fever, and anal leakage after rupture.
★Anal leakage refers to the fistula formed by the connection between the rectum or anal canal and the surrounding skin, also known as anal fistula. Generally, it is composed of three parts: primary internal orifice, fistula and secondary external orifice, and some have only internal or external orifice. The internal orifice is primary, most of which are in the anal sinus at the dental line of the anal canal; the external orifice is secondary, often more than one on the skin around the anus. Anal leakage is mostly a sequelae of anal carbuncle. Clinically, it is divided into two types: purulent or tuberculous. It is characterized by repeated local pus, pain, and itching as the main symptoms, and the fistula can be palpated or probed to the rectum.
★Anal fissure: The skin of the anal canal splits longitudinally and forms infectious ulcers. It is called anal fissure. It is more common in young adults, with more women than men. Anal fissures are generally located in the front and rear midpoint of the anus, especially in the later position. Anal fissures located on the front midline are more common in women. Clinically, it is mainly characterized by periodic pain, bleeding, and constipation in the anus. Traditional Chinese medicine refers to this disease as "hook intestinal hemorrhoids" and "cracked hemorrhoids".
★Anus prolapse is a disease in which the rectal mucosa, anal canal, full-thickness of the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon move downward and prolapse outside the anus. Its characteristic is that the rectal mucosa and rectum repeatedly protrude outside the anus with anal relaxation. Rectal prolapse equivalent to western medicine
★Anorectal hemorrhoids This disease is a malignant tumor that occurs in the anal canal and rectum. In the later stage of the disease, the tumor is blocked, the anus is narrow, and it is difficult to defecate. It is like locking the anus, so it is called anal hemorrhoids. It is equivalent to anorectal cancer in western medicine. "Surgery Dacheng" said: "Anal locking hemorrhoids, the inside and outside of the anus are locked like bamboo joints, shaped like jellyfish, tenesmus, heavy, faeces thin and flat, sometimes running smelly water,...". The symptoms and prognosis of this disease are described in detail. The age of onset of this disease is more than 40 years old, and it is occasionally seen in young people. Its early characteristics are blood in the stool and changes in bowel habits.