(1) Abnormal urination and its treatment
Within 24 hours after delivery, the water accumulated in the body in the late pregnancy is mainly excreted through the kidneys, so there is more urine. Generally, the first urination should be solved 4 to 6 hours after delivery. Some women may not urinate due to the following reasons:
① Fear of perineal wound pain, or because of perineal wound pain, reflexly causing urethral sphincter spasm and dysuria.
②Not used to urinating in bed.
③Longer labor, the bladder is compressed by the fetal head for a long time, and the urination function is temporarily affected.
④The bladder volume increases during the puerperium, and it is not sensitive to the increase of internal tension, so that excessive urine is accumulated and there is still no intention to urinate.
Urine cannot be excreted and accumulated in the bladder. The full bladder will affect the contraction of the postpartum uterus and may cause postpartum hemorrhage. Therefore, it is necessary to actively take measures to deal with or prevent urinary retention:
①If you are not used to urinating in bed, you can sit up or squat up to relieve it.
② Gently rub the lower abdomen with your hands, or warm the lower abdomen with a hot water bottle, but not for too long, otherwise it will easily cause postpartum hemorrhage.
③Pour water back and forth in two basins near the parturient to allow the parturient to listen to the sound of the water flow to stimulate urination; you can also put hot water in the potty, sit on it and smoke, or wash the perineum with warm water to relieve urethral sphincter spasm .
If you still can’t get urination after using the above methods, you should ask your doctor to use traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine, acupuncture and other methods. If it still doesn’t work, you have to insert a urinary catheter. Generally, keep it for 1 to 2 days until the bladder has urination function. Unplug after recovery.
In the future, we must pay attention to maintaining smooth urine, do not hold back urine, urinate cleanly, eat more fruits and vegetables, drink plenty of water, and exercise more.
(2) Treatment and prevention of postpartum constipation
After childbirth, due to the relaxation of the abdominal muscles and pelvic floor muscles, the abdominal pressure is reduced, coupled with the reduction of postpartum activities, weakening of bowel motility, less food during childbirth and excessive urine and sweating after childbirth, often constipation occurs. In addition, the postpartum diet lacks crude fiber and is afraid of painful perineal wounds, which can also cause constipation.
Those who have had an enema during childbirth may have no stool within 2 days after delivery. If the postpartum bowel movement is not accessible for more than 3 days, it is necessary to deal with it appropriately:
① Use fruit guide tablets, 1-2 tablets per night, orally before going to bed.
②Kaisailu, 1-2 sticks a day, stuffed into the anus.
③Take the Chinese patent medicine Maren pills and the like.
④Take liquid paraffin, 15-30mL each time, orally before going to bed, but not for a long time (it will hinder the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and calcium and phosphorus), only occasionally try.
One of the above methods can be selected.
To prevent postpartum constipation, you can start from the following aspects:
① Get up as soon as possible after delivery or do appropriate exercises in bed, do gymnastics, and promote bowel movements.
② Drink as much water as possible, eat more vegetables and fruits.
③Can take appropriate amount of honey.
④Develop the habit of having regular bowel movements every day.
⑤ Do not eat foods that are too hot like frying.
(3) What should I do if postpartum hemorrhoids occur?
During childbirth, the lying-in woman pushes downwards, the pelvic cavity is congested, and the fetal head drops. When the fetus is delivered, the anal blood vessels are congested and dilated, which can easily cause hemorrhoids. If the mother has had hemorrhoids, hemorrhoids can be made worse at this time.
Within 2 to 3 weeks after childbirth, the onset of hemorrhoids in parturients is manifested in red, swollen, and painful anus, and they dare not defecate for fear of pain, leading to constipation, and constipation will in turn make hemorrhoids worse. Therefore, postpartum hemorrhoids should be treated in time, such as applying some ointment, and then slowly pushing it back into the anus with your fingers.
Parturients suffering from hemorrhoids should pay special attention to their diet, eat more vegetables and fruits and other foods that contain more crude fiber to ensure smooth stools and help prevent the onset of hemorrhoids or reduce the symptoms of hemorrhoids.
(4) How can pregnant women prevent anal fissure?
Anal fissure is a chronic ulcer formed after the skin of the anal canal is damaged and ruptured, and after repeated infections. It is generally located in the middle of the back of the anal canal. The rupture of the skin of the anal canal often results from the damage of dry and hard feces. The damage does not have a chance to heal, and it is repeatedly infected to form anal fissure.
The postpartum parturient has little activity, slow bowel movements, feces stay in the intestines for too long, and the feces are absorbed dry and become dry and hard. If the postpartum diet is too thin, it is easy to cause constipation. In addition, the pelvic cavity is compressed by the uterus during pregnancy and the pelvic veins The reflux is blocked, resulting in edema of the tissues around the anus, decreased resistance, and finally the anus is vulnerable to infection, forming anal fissure.
After anal fissure occurs, care should be taken to clean the anus, especially after bowel movements, take a bath with 1‰ potassium permanganate solution to promote wound healing. If it fails, go to the hospital for anal dilation or anal fissure resection.
Postpartum anal fissures can be prevented from the following aspects:
①Pay attention to hygiene, gently scrub the anus with warm water after each bowel movement;
②Try to avoid sitting for a long time;
③Try not to eat spicy and fried foods, pay attention to develop a good habit of regular bowel movements, eat more vegetables and fruits and other foods containing more crude fiber to ensure smooth bowel movements and prevent constipation;
④Do exercises of contraction and levator anus to improve local blood circulation and exercise the anal sphincter. The specific method is to lift the anus while inhaling, like a bowel movement, then exhale and relax, and repeat this procedure, doing 10-20 times each time, twice a day.
⑤When constipation occurs, do not force defecation, but insert Kaisailu, glycerin suppository, etc. from the anus to promote the discharge of stool, and enema if necessary to prevent anal laceration.
(5) Puerperal infection and its treatment
Puerperal infection refers to inflammation caused by infection of reproductive organs after childbirth, and it is one of the main causes of maternal death.
Puerperal infection is caused by bacteria. According to the source of bacteria, there are two types: self-infection and external infection. The former refers to bacteria that originally parasitize in the birth canal or other parts, and the latter refers to the bacteria entering the birth canal from the outside world before, during, and after delivery. Common causes include anemia or malnutrition during the puerperium, premature rupture of membranes, prolonged labor, injury of the birth canal, postpartum hemorrhage, residual placenta, multiple vaginal operations before or during delivery, sexual intercourse in late pregnancy, and careless hygiene. These conditions can cause pathogenic bacteria to invade the wounds in the postpartum uterus and spread to the reproductive organs and other parts of the pelvis, causing inflammation.
Symptoms of puerperal infection often appear 3 to 7 days after delivery, and are generally manifested as local inflammatory reactions such as fever and persistent pain in the lower abdomen. If the inflammation cannot be controlled, or the bacterial virulence is strong and the body's resistance is weak, septic shock may occur and life-threatening. Puerperal infections generally have the following types:
① Inflammation of the perineum, vulva, vagina and cervix;
②Endometritis and uterine myositis, which are the most common types of puerperal infections;
④ Acute pelvic connective tissue inflammation;
⑥ Thrombophlebitis, sepsis or sepsis.
Puerperal infection affects the health of the puerpera, prolongs the postpartum recovery time, and is life-threatening. Active and thorough treatment is necessary to avoid leaving chronic inflammation. The treatment is based on antibiotics, which can be combined with TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment. Breastfeeding should be suspended when fever is severe.
The prevention of puerperal infection is important, and the following aspects can be started:
① Sexual intercourse and bathing are prohibited at the end of pregnancy;
②Attention should be paid to correct anemia during pregnancy, and treat local infection and inflammation of the nasopharynx, gums, urinary tract, vagina or cervix as soon as possible;
③Strictly perform aseptic operations during delivery to avoid unnecessary vaginal examinations and anal examinations;
④ Pay attention to vulva cleansing after childbirth, and often take a semi-recumbent position to facilitate the discharge of lochia.