It is a bit exaggerated to say that the pain of anal fissure shocks the world, but the vague, small, long-term pain-like pain is really uncomfortable.
What is anal fissure?
The incidence of anal fissure accounts for the second place in anorectal diseases, second only to hemorrhoids. The prevalence of young adults is 20-40 years old. According to statistics in China, there are more men than women. As the name suggests, anal fissure is a crack in the anus. The professional concept is that the skin of the anal canal below the tooth line of the anus, prismatic cracks or ulcers formed due to a variety of reasons. The direction of the slit is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the anal canal and is fusiform or elliptical.
The vast majority of anal fissures are located on the posterior midline of the anal canal, and can also be on the anterior midline, with very few anal fissures on the side. If there is an anal fissure on the side, think about the possibility of intestinal inflammatory disease or tumor. Long-term failure to receive treatment for anal fissures will seriously affect the lives of patients. It will also induce perianal eczema, anal itching and other anorectal diseases. It may also form high complex anal fissures, causing anal incontinence and, more seriously, cancerous transformation.
Causes of anal fissure
Many people often experience symptoms such as constipation, pain after defecation, and bleeding. People often think it is hemorrhoids. However, patients with such symptoms often get anal fissures instead of hemorrhoids. What is the cause of anal fissure?
1. Constipation: Constipation is one of the most important causes of anal fissure. If the patient has frequent constipation and dry stools, it will inevitably damage the anal canal when passing through the anal canal, causing anal fissure. In addition, if the patient does not cure the constipation during the treatment of anal fissure, anal fissure will be induced again in the future, resulting in frequent anal fissures.
2. Poor defecation habits: Many people have the habit of reading newspapers and smoking during defecation, which invisibly prolongs the defecation time, aggravates the pressure on the anal area, and causes blood stasis in the anal area. If you defecate hard at this time, the anal canal will be excessively compressed, which will cause anal fissure bleeding.
3. Infection factors: If there are long-term infection factors around the anal canal, it will cause the anal fissure to recur and continue to heal. These infectious factors mainly include various anorectal diseases such as hemorrhoids, perianal abscess, anal fistula, and anal sinusitis.
Two typical symptoms of anal fissure
Constipation is both the cause and the consequence of anal fissure. After anal fissure, the patient is unwilling to defecate for a long time due to anal pain, causing constipation, and the stool becomes harder. Constipation can aggravate the anal fissure and form a vicious circle, making it difficult to heal the anal fissure. So the 2 typical symptoms of anal fissure are:
1. Periodic pain: Pain is the main symptom of anal fissure. Most of the painful symptoms of anal fissure are severe and have typical periodicity. Burning or cutting pain in the anal canal during defecation is called pain during defecation. It is relieved a few minutes after defecation, which is called intermittent period, and then the anal sphincter spasm is painful again, which can last for half to several hours. It is clinically called sphincter contracture pain until the sphincter is fatigued. After relaxation, the pain is relieved. Pain occurs again during defecation, which is called anal. Crack pain cycle.
2. Blood in the stool: Another major manifestation of anal fissure is blood in the stool. This is because the stool expands the anal canal during defecation, causing small blood vessels in the anal fissure to tear. The amount of bleeding is not much, sometimes there is no bleeding, or blood drips out in the stool. Or blood on the surface of the stool, or blood on the toilet paper after stool, sometimes a small amount of mucus can be seen in the blood.
Prevent anal fissures, drink water regularly and defecate regularly
You can drink boiled water, light salt water, honey water and soup before and after meals. It is not advisable to drink too much strong tea or caffeine-containing beverages, because the tannic acid in tea can astringent stools; while caffeine has a diuretic effect and accelerates water loss. At the same time, it is necessary to develop good bowel habits, it is best to get up in the morning or after breakfast, and arrange a reasonable time in normal life in order to prevent the occurrence of diseases.
If anal fissure is not treated in time in the early stage, it will continue to develop anal ulcers, sentinel hemorrhoids, anal papilla hypertrophy, anal sinusitis and anal fistula, collectively referred to as "five consecutive signs of anal fissure". Once the "five consecutive signs of anal fissure" is formed, it means that the condition is more serious and the treatment is more complicated. Therefore, patients with anal fissure should go to a regular professional hospital for treatment in time.