Colonoscopy is the most important method for early detection of colorectal cancer. It inserts the colonoscope into the intestinal cavity through the anus to observe whether there are any lesions in the entire large intestine cavity. It can also clamp small pieces of lesion tissue for pathological examination, which is helpful Make a clear diagnosis and judge the severity of the condition, and then guide treatment. With the increasing maturity of endoscopic technology and the continuous advancement of EMR and ESD technologies, colonoscopy can also be used to remove colorectal polyps and early cancer, and can also be used to stop bleeding under colonoscopy.
Colonoscopy is necessary for these 22 conditions:
(1) Those who have symptoms such as blood in the stool, melena, or long-term stool occult blood test is positive;
(2) Those with mucus, pus and blood in stool;
(3) People with frequent bowel movements, unformed stools, or diarrhea;
(4) Those who have had difficulty in defecation or have irregular bowel movements recently;
(5) Stool becomes thin and deformed;
(6) People with long-term abdominal pain and bloating;
(7) Unexplained weight loss or wasting;
(8) People with anemia of unknown cause;
(9) Abdominal masses of unknown cause, requiring a clear diagnosis;
(10) Unexplained elevated CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen);
(11) Long-term chronic constipation, who cannot be cured for a long time;
(12) Chronic colitis, long-term medication, who does not heal for a long time;
(13) Suspected colon tumor, but negative on barium enema X-ray examination;
(14) CT or other examinations of the abdomen reveal suspicious thickening of the bowel wall, and colorectal cancer needs to be excluded.
(15) In patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhage lesions can be found under colonoscopy to determine the cause of the bleeding, and he can be stopped under the microscope if necessary.
(16) Patients who have had schistosomiasis, ulcerative colitis and other diseases.
(17) Colonoscopy needs to be reviewed regularly after colorectal cancer surgery. Patients after colorectal cancer surgery generally need a colonoscopy every 6 months to 1 year. If the colonoscopy fails to check all the colon due to colonic obstruction before the operation, colonoscopy should be performed 3 months after the operation to determine whether there are colon polyps or colon cancer lesions in other undetected parts.
(18) Those who have been found to have colon polyps and need to be removed under colonoscopy;
(19) Colonoscopy should be reviewed regularly after colorectal polypectomy. Pathological polyps such as villous adenoma, serrated adenoma, and high-grade epithelioma are prone to recurrence and cancer. It is recommended to review colonoscopy every 3-6 months. For other types of polyps, colonoscopy is generally recommended every 12 months. If the recheck colonoscopy is negative, you can recheck after 3 years.
(20) People with a family history of colorectal cancer should undergo colonoscopy: if one person in the family has colorectal cancer, even if his immediate family members (parents, children, siblings) have no symptoms or discomfort, they should undergo a physical examination for colon Mirror inspection. A large number of studies have proved that if a person has colorectal cancer, his immediate family members (parents, children, siblings) are 2-3 times more likely to have colorectal cancer than the normal population, and these people are high-risk groups.
(21) People with a family history of colorectal polyps also need to undergo colonoscopy.
(22) People over the age of 40, especially those who have a long-term high-protein and high-fat diet and long-term alcoholism, are best to undergo a colonoscopy routine physical examination to detect asymptomatic early colorectal cancer as soon as possible.
1. Blood in the stool ≠ hemorrhoids!
The incidence of hemorrhoids is very high, and blood in the stool is the most common clinical manifestation of hemorrhoids, so many people think that blood in the stool is caused by hemorrhoids. This view is extremely wrong, because many other diseases can also cause blood in the stool, such as colon cancer, rectal cancer, anal fissure, and rectal hemangioma.
2. Hematochezia is the most important clinical manifestation of colorectal cancer.
At the same time, blood in the stool is also a common symptom of dozens of anorectal diseases such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and enteritis. Therefore, it is impossible to determine the true cause of the disease based on blood in the stool. When hematochezia and melena recur, go to a regular hospital for colonoscopy in time to avoid delay in diagnosis.
3. Hemorrhoids will not cause rectal cancer, but hemorrhoids can be accompanied by rectal cancer at the same time.
Hemorrhoids are a benign disease that will not evolve into rectal cancer, but patients who have hemorrhoids can also get rectal cancer. It should be taken seriously.
4. Patients with hemorrhoids with blood in the stool should be highly suspected of rectal cancer.
The main symptoms of hemorrhoids and rectal cancer are blood in the stool. Some patients have a history of hemorrhoids, so as long as they have blood in the stool, they are considered to be bleeding from hemorrhoids. The blood in the stool caused by rectal cancer will also get better after hemorrhoid suppository treatment, but after a period of time, blood in the stool will appear again, recurring, and it will not heal for a long time. At this time, you should go to a regular hospital as soon as possible for digital rectal examination and colonoscopy to rule out the possibility of colorectal cancer.