What is hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids are normal anatomical structures, and everyone has them. They are tissues containing blood vessels, which "seal" the anal canal and control bowel movements. Some people will develop symptomatic hemorrhoids (that is, enlargement, bleeding, pain), which requires treatment. According to different locations, hemorrhoids are divided into two categories. Internal hemorrhoids (in the anus only) and external hemorrhoids (in the anus).
External hemorrhoids grow in the anal opening and expand outward. They are covered with sensitive skin and are usually painless. However, if external hemorrhoids develop a blood clot, painful lumps will form. A ruptured external hemorrhoid can also bleed. Some people will notice that external hemorrhoids enlarged during defecation affect cleansing. Or accompanied by local itching.
Internal hemorrhoids grow in the anus. Painless bleeding and prolapse during defecation are the most common symptoms. However, complete prolapse of internal hemorrhoids (incarcerated hemorrhoids), that is, the internal hemorrhoids protrude from the anal opening and cannot be pushed back, causing severe pain.
What causes symptomatic internal hemorrhoids?
Increased intra-abdominal pressure seems to be the main cause of symptomatic internal hemorrhoids, and increased abdominal pressure can be transmitted to the anal area. Other triggers include hard work during defecation, constipation, diarrhea, pregnancy, abnormal bowel function, and sitting for long periods of time.
Regardless of the above reasons, the tissue supporting the blood vessels will be overstretched. As a result, the blood vessels dilate, the blood vessel walls become thinner, and then bleeding. If excessive stretching and abdominal pressure persist, blood vessels that have lost support will bulge out.
What are the symptoms?
If you have the following symptoms, you already have symptomatic hemorrhoids:
Blood in stool
The anus is not easy to clean after going to the toilet
How to treat hemorrhoids?
Mild symptoms can be relieved or relieved by changing diet. Such as increasing the fiber in food, eating more fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, and whole grains can increase the fiber in food. Drink more water, drinking up to eight glasses of water a day. This will keep the stool in shape and smooth the bowel movement. Eliminating tension can reduce the pressure on hemorrhoids, which can prevent hemorrhoid tissue from coming out. Bathing in warm water for 10 minutes can also improve the symptoms of hemorrhoids.
Through the above methods, most symptomatic external hemorrhoids can resolve pain and local edema in about 2 to 7 days. However, it takes 4 to 6 weeks for hard anal lumps to soften and shrink. Occasionally, excess skin may be left behind to form skin tags. For thrombotic hemorrhoids that cause severe and continuous pain, surgery can be considered to remove the hemorrhoids with blood clots to relieve anal pain.
For symptomatic internal hemorrhoids, other measures are needed for treatment, such as band ligation, sclerotherapy or surgery.
Rubber band ligation can effectively treat prolapsed internal hemorrhoids. A small rubber snare is placed on the root of the hemorrhoid to block the blood flow of the hemorrhoid. After a few days, the hemorrhoid tissue and rubber ring will fall off, and the wound will heal in 1-2 weeks. This method causes some pain and bleeding. Sometimes it needs to be repeated several times to relieve the symptoms.
Sclerosing agent injection and infrared coagulation are also used for early internal hemorrhoids that only show bleeding, and are not effective for prolapsed hemorrhoids. These two methods can cause internal hemorrhoids atrophy without obvious pain.
Circumcision of the hemorrhoids is a technique that uses special instruments to remove and suture internal hemorrhoids. This type of circumcision achieves the purpose of shrinking the external hemorrhoids by removing the mucosa of the hemorrhoids, and does not remove the external hemorrhoids during the operation. This operation is more painful than apron ligation, but slightly less painful than traditional hemorrhoidectomy.
Hemorrhoidectomy is the most thorough surgical method to remove internal hemorrhoids. When the internal hemorrhoid rubber band ligation fails, the prolapse of hemorrhoids is not improved, and hemorrhoid bleeding continues, this kind of operation can be considered. For recurrent thrombotic external hemorrhoids, doctors also choose this method. Hemorrhoidectomy can remove excess hemorrhoid tissue that causes bleeding and prolapse. This kind of surgery needs to be performed under anesthesia, requires a few days of hospitalization, and a period of rest. Most people think that laser surgery is painless. In fact, laser hemorrhoidectomy does not have a greater advantage than standard hemorrhoidectomy.
Will hemorrhoids develop into cancer?
will not. There is no relationship between hemorrhoids and cancer. However, symptomatic hemorrhoids, especially when bleeding, are very similar to the symptoms of certain colorectal cancer and other digestive diseases. Therefore, find a specialist in colorectal surgery to identify these symptoms. Those who are 50 years of age or older with high-risk factors (such as: family history of colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, genetic syndrome) should be screened for colorectal cancer. Do not self-medicate or rely on non-prescription drugs. You must go to a specialist so that your symptoms can be effectively evaluated and treated.