Correct care after anal surgery plays a vital role in wound healing and reducing complications. Do not focus on surgery and neglect care. Some operations are very successful. Improper postoperative care will lead to slow wound healing and complications. Common anal operations mainly refer to hemorrhoids, anal fistulas, anal fissures, and perianal abscesses. The following mainly talks about the precautions after these operations.
1. Dietary considerations
A liquid diet can be taken on the day after surgery. If local anesthesia is used, a small amount of semi-liquid diet such as porridge and noodles can be taken. Don't eat fat and greasy food, don't eat cold foods such as fruits, don't drink honey and beverages to avoid flatulence and diarrhea. On the first day after surgery, you can eat a semi-liquid diet. On the second day after surgery, you can eat and drink normally. Within 15 days after surgery, in order to maintain smooth stools, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, and eat more nutritious and easy-to-digest foods, such as chicken soup, fish soup, lean meat, etc. Fasting spicy and irritating food for one month after surgery. After hemorrhoids and anal fissures, alcohol must be absent for three months. Anal fistulas and abscesses must abstain from alcohol for half a year.
2. Precautions for postoperative activities
If local anesthesia is taken, stay in bed on the day of surgery. If you take spinal anesthesia or sacral anesthesia, you need to lie down for 6 hours. When the wound is not completely healed, you can take a walk. Within 15 days after surgery, do not bear weight (such as water, mopping the floor, etc.), do not have sex, do not sit for a long time and squat. Do not do strenuous exercise for one month after surgery. Do not ride bicycles or do heavy physical work within three months after surgery
3. Precautions for postoperative bowel movements
After the operation, due to anesthesia, pain or anal discomfort, the urine can not be discharged normally. The patient does not need to be nervous and can apply heat to the lower abdomen. After the anesthetic dissipates and the pain or swelling disappears, the urine can be discharged normally. Control the bowel movement for 1-2 days after surgery, and defecate on the third day after surgery. Do not squat for a long time when you have a bowel movement, 3 minutes is better, you should have your family accompany you when you have a bowel movement, wash it with warm water after the bowel movement, and take a bath with Chinese medicine. The water temperature should be appropriate during the sitz bath, and the time should be controlled. For patients with perianal abscess, anal fistula, and anal fissure, sit for 10-15 minutes, and patients with hemorrhoids can take 2 minutes. Sitting for a long time can cause wound edema. If the stool is dry and cannot be discharged normally, use Kaisailu or see a doctor with water enema. Do not use excessive force.
Fourth, postoperative pain and stool bleeding
The precision of the operation and the use of incision sealing can be basically painless. A small number of patients with obvious pain can be relieved by oral analgesics. Slight pain during stool is normal, and washing and applying medicine after defecation can alleviate it. A small amount of blood dripping or blood on the toilet paper during stool is normal. If the blood flow does not stop or a large number of blood clots are discharged, seek medical attention immediately.
5. Postoperative treatment measures
Antibiotics are routinely used for 3-5 days after anal surgery. To keep the anus clean, change the dressing after taking a bath after each bowel movement. Patients with constipation should drink plenty of soup, eat more fruits and vegetables, and supplement with laxatives. Patients with chronic colitis should have a light diet, not eat cold and greasy food, and control stool 1-2 times a day. 7-15 days after the operation is the hemorrhoid shedding period, the anus may feel swollen and feel like a stool, a little blood may be sprayed, the anus is wet, itching, or anal edema, you should prevent secondary bleeding at this time and pay attention to rest , Do not exercise vigorously. A small amount of bleeding is the recovery process. If there is a large amount of bleeding, you need to come to the hospital immediately. Eat more light and easy-to-digest foods to keep stool smooth. Do not hold your breath and force your bowel movements. Keep the anus clean and hygienic, and apply anti-itch ointment outside if itching
Six, the appearance of secretions
After anal surgery, secretions will flow out. This is a self-cleaning phenomenon. Patients should not worry that the wound is purulent. Hemorrhoids will last about 15 days after surgery; anal fistulas and abscesses will last about 25-40 days, please use pads. If accompanied by anal swelling, pain, fever, and chills, consider the possibility of wound infection.
Seven, prevent recurrence measures
1. Do not squat for long periods of time: In particular, the time to go to the toilet should be short. It is better to control the stool time within 3-5 minutes. Do not look at your mobile phone or smoke in the toilet. Because the squatting posture can easily induce hemorrhoids and even prolapse of the anus, to prevent hemorrhoids, it is recommended to sit in a bucket for stool.
2. Maintain smooth stools: develop good stool habits and maintain smooth stools. Patients with constipation should pay attention to dietary regulation and take laxative drugs. If dryness is difficult to eliminate, do not use excessive force. You can use Kaisailu or see a doctor with water enema. It is also necessary to prevent diarrhea. Stool multiple times a day is also a factor that induces hemorrhoids, abscesses and other anal diseases.
3. Keep the anus clean: Develop the habit of washing the anus with water after defecation, and keeping the anus clean can reduce the occurrence of many anal diseases.
4. Precautions for diet: Patients with internal hemorrhoid bleeding and enteritis are particularly sensitive to alcohol and hot peppers, so they must refrain from alcohol and eat less spicy food. Patients with perianal eczema should also eat less seafood, shrimp and other foods with high protein content of the opposite sex.
5. Insist on anal exercises: for prolapsed hemorrhoids, anal fistulas and perianal abscesses, often do levator anus exercises and perianal massage, which can improve the blood circulation in the anus, restore and strengthen the anal sphincter function, and reduce the occurrence of hemorrhoids .