Breastfeeding women (mothers) must secrete milk and feed their babies;
It is also necessary to gradually compensate for the loss of nutrients during pregnancy and childbirth and promote the recovery of various organs and systems.
Therefore, they need more nutrition than non-breastfeeding women.
Based on the many benefits of breastfeeding to mothers and offspring, the World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed within 6 months, and continue breastfeeding to 2 years of age or longer with the addition of complementary foods.
The mother’s nutritional status is the basis of lactation. If there is insufficient nutrition during lactation, it will reduce the amount of milk secretion, reduce the quality of milk, and affect the health of the mother. In addition, mother's emotions, psychology, sleep, etc. will also affect milk secretion. The dietary guidelines for breastfeeding women add the following 5 items to the general population dietary guidelines:
① Increase animal food and seafood rich in high-quality protein and vitamin A, and choose iodized salt;
②The food in the puerperium (commonly known as confinement) is varied but not excessive, and the nutrition of the entire lactation period is emphasized;
③Pleasure mood, adequate sleep, and promote milk secretion;
④ Insist on breastfeeding, exercise moderately, and gradually restore proper body mass;
⑤ Avoid tobacco and alcohol, and avoid strong tea and coffee.
Now I will give a detailed description on 5 points~~
1. Increase animal food and seafood rich in high-quality protein and vitamin A, and choose iodized salt
1.1 Content summary, 30-second shorthand
① Increase the amount of fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat by about 80 to 100 g per day compared to before pregnancy (the total amount per day is 220 g), and part of it can be replaced by soybeans and their products if necessary; (don’t know how much 100 g is? 2 taels!)
②Drink 200 mL of milk per day than before pregnancy (a box of milk is generally 250ml), so that the total milk volume reaches 400~500 mL per day;
③ Eat animal liver once or twice a week (total amount of 85 g pig liver, or 40 g chicken liver); (100 g is 2 taels)
④ Ingest sea fish, kelp, seaweed, shellfish and other seafood at least once a week;
⑤ Use iodized salt to cook food.
1.2 High-quality protein can increase the quantity and quality of milk
The quality and quantity of mother's dietary protein have a significant impact on lactation. When protein and energy intake decreases, lactation can be reduced to 40% to 50% of normal.
If the mother’s dietary protein is of poor quality and the intake is insufficient, it will also affect the protein content and composition in the milk. (In other words, if the mother does not eat well, the baby will also eat well)
Mothers should increase their protein intake by 25 g per day on the original basis to reach 80 g per day, and ensure the supply of high-quality protein. (What does high-quality protein mean?: The closer the amino acid pattern of food protein is to the amino acid pattern of human protein, the easier it is for the body to absorb and utilize this protein, which is called high-quality protein.
Fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat are the best sources of high-quality protein. They also provide a variety of important minerals and vitamins. Moms should add about 80-100 g of fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat per day compared to before pregnancy. If conditions are limited, eating more soybeans and their products rich in high-quality protein can also replace part of it. )
1.3 Mother drinking more milk is beneficial to her own bone health
If the mother's dietary calcium intake cannot meet the needs, the mother will mobilize the calcium in the bones to maintain the relative stability of calcium in the breast milk, and the mother may suffer from osteomalacia due to calcium deficiency.
To ensure the mother's calcium balance and bone health, mothers should increase calcium intake. The recommended dietary calcium intake for mothers is 1,000 mg per day. Therefore, the mother's diet should increase milk and other calcium-rich foods. If the mother drinks 200 mL of milk daily, plus calcium from other food sources in the diet, it is easier to reach the recommended intake.
1.4 Increasing vitamin A-rich animal foods is beneficial to increase breast milk vitamin A levels
In order to increase the vitamin A content of breast milk and meet the baby’s vitamin A needs, mothers need to choose foods rich in vitamin A, such as animal liver, egg yolk, milk rich in retinol, dark green and rich in pro-vitamin A Red and yellow vegetables and fruits.
1.5 Choosing iodized salt and increasing the intake of seafood can ensure the mother's need for iodine and increase the content of iodine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in milk
Breastfeeding women’s need for iodine doubles that before pregnancy, and neither iodized salt nor seafood alone can meet their needs. Therefore, in addition to intake of iodized salt, mothers also need to increase the intake of iodine-rich seafood such as kelp, seaweed, fish and shrimp. In addition, marine fish and shrimp are also rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. If the mother increases the intake of seafood, the content of DHA and iodine in the milk will increase, which is beneficial to the growth and development of the baby, especially the development of the brain and nervous system.
2. During the puerperium ("confinement period"), the food is varied and not excessive, and the nutrition of the whole lactation period is emphasized
The puerperium is also commonly known as the confinement period
2.1 Content summary, 30 second shorthand
① The puerperium diet should be a balanced diet composed of diverse foods, without special food taboos.
②You should eat meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and other animal foods every day during the puerperium, but not excessive. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, and ensure a daily intake of 500 g of vegetables.
③Ensure adequate and balanced nutrition throughout the lactation period to continue breastfeeding.
2.2 Mother's dietary nutritional status is an important factor affecting milk quality
Must pay attention to adequate and balanced nutrition during lactation to ensure the quality and quantity of milk.
It usually takes 6 to 8 weeks for a parturient to give birth to the fetus and its appendages until the reproductive organs return to a non-pregnant state. This period of time is medically called the puerperium and is commonly known as "confinement.
The following are misunderstandings that need to be avoided: According to Chinese tradition, food supplements during confinement are highly valued. Mothers have to eat a lot of animal foods such as meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, but there are also some food taboos, such as not eating. Vegetables and fruits etc. Excessive intake of animal food will cause excessive intake of protein and fat, increase the burden on the digestive system and kidneys, and cause excess energy and lead to obesity; insufficient intake of vegetables, fruits, etc. will cause damage to vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. The decrease in intake affects milk secretion and the content of vitamins and minerals in the milk, and increases the incidence of mothers' constipation and hemorrhoids.
Therefore, during the puerperium, we must pay attention to the intake of vegetables and fruits to ensure that the food is balanced, diverse, and sufficient, but not excessive to ensure the health of the mother and the quality of milk; the nutrition of the breastfeeding stage after the puerperium should also be paid attention to, and meat, poultry, fish, Eggs and other high-quality protein-containing foods are distributed in a balanced manner throughout the lactation period, which is beneficial to the mother's health and continued breastfeeding.
3. Pleasant mood, adequate sleep, promote milk secretion
3.1 Content summary, 30-second shorthand
①Family members should fully care about their mothers, help them adjust their mentality, relieve stress, and establish self-confidence in breastfeeding;
② Mothers should live a regular life and ensure more than 8 hours of sleep every day;
③The daily water requirement should be increased by 500~1000 mL compared with the average person, and food with soup should be guaranteed for each meal.
3.2 Promote milk secretion
Mothers with a good mental state, strong self-confidence, and positive optimism can promote the secretion of oxytocin and increase milk excretion. On the contrary, it will reduce the synthesis of milk.
Maternal work and rest should be arranged reasonably to ensure that sleep more than 8 hours a day and improve the quality of sleep to promote milk secretion and maternal health.
The amount of water a mother consumes every day is also closely related to the amount of milk secretion. When the amount of drinking water is insufficient, the amount of milk secretion can be reduced, so mothers should drink more soup every day. In addition, due to the higher basal metabolism of the parturient and the more sweating, coupled with the secretion of milk, the water requirement is higher than that of ordinary people, so it is beneficial for the parturient to drink more soup.
4. Insist on breastfeeding, exercise moderately, and gradually restore proper body mass
4.1 Content summary, 30 seconds shorthand
①Start puerperium exercises 2 days after delivery;
②Start regular aerobic exercises such as walking and jogging at 6 weeks postpartum;
③The aerobic exercise is gradually increased from 15 minutes a day to 45 minutes a day, and adhere to 4 or 5 times a week.
4.2 Gradually restore suitable body mass
Women experience a series of body mass changes during the perinatal period. After most women give birth, their body mass will increase to varying degrees compared to before pregnancy.
Milk secretion can consume fat stored during pregnancy, which is conducive to the recovery of mother's body mass as soon as possible.
Insist on breastfeeding and physical activity are the two most important measures to reduce body weight and prevent postpartum obesity.
5. Avoid tobacco and alcohol, avoid strong tea and coffee
5.1 Content summary, 30 second shorthand
① Mothers should avoid smoking and drinking, and prevent mothers and babies from inhaling second-hand smoke;
② Mothers should avoid drinking strong tea and large amounts of coffee to avoid excessive caffeine intake.
5.2 The harm of tobacco and alcohol to the fetus
Nicotine in tobacco can enter milk, and smoking can reduce milk secretion by inhibiting oxytocin and prolactin.
Although the breast does not store alcohol, the alcohol content in breast milk is parallel to the mother's blood alcohol content. Studies have shown that the mother's milk production can be reduced by about 20% after 3 to 4 hours after drinking. In addition to reducing lactation, drinking alcohol can also change the smell of milk and reduce the baby's intake of milk. The mother’s drinking also affects the baby’s sleep. It has been reported abroad that the baby’s sleep time was significantly reduced within 3.5 hours after the mother drank alcohol. In a prospective cohort study, researchers found that maternal drinking can adversely affect infant gross motor development.
Strong tea and coffee contain a lot of caffeine. Studies have shown that caffeine intake by breastfeeding mothers can cause irritability and affect sleep quality in infants, and long-term intake can affect infant nervous system development.
Therefore, during breastfeeding, mothers should avoid tobacco and alcohol, and avoid drinking strong tea and coffee.
Reference materials: Dietary Guidelines for Lactating Women, Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Guidelines Revision Expert Committee, Maternal and Child Population Guidelines Revision Expert Working Group (2016)