Blood in the stool refers to bleeding in the digestive tract, and blood is discharged from the anus. The discharged blood can be bright red, dark red or black. A small amount of bleeding does not cause a change in the color of the stool, and it needs to be determined by an occult (occult) blood test, which is called occult blood. One of the purposes of clinical stool inspection is to find patients with occult blood. Bleeding methods include: blood dripping from the anus during stool or after defecation, spurting blood, blood on the surface of the stool, stained toilet paper after stool, etc. Sometimes blood is mixed with stool, pus and mucus. But the most common is blood in the stool or dripping after the stool, the blood volume can be more or less.
The color of blood in the stool firstly depends on the height of the bleeding site. The upper gastrointestinal tract such as the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and liver, biliary tract, and pancreas usually discharge brown or tarry stools when bleeding. When the small intestine, colon, rectum, anal canal and other lower gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage, the discharge is mostly dark red or bright red blood. However, the color of blood in the stool is also related to the amount of bleeding and the speed of discharge. When acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is accompanied by increased peristalsis, bright red bloody stools can be discharged instead of black, and small intestinal bleeding, such as staying in the intestine for a long time, can also discharge tarry black stools.
The most common causes of blood in the stool are:
Hemorrhoids There is a folk saying that "ten people have nine hemorrhoids", and hemorrhoids are more common among elderly men. Painless and intermittent blood after the stool is a common symptom of internal hemorrhoids in the early stage. Due to feces rubbing the hemorrhoid mucosa, blood drips or blood on the toilet paper when stool appears, and a small number of spray-like bleeding can stop by itself.
Colorectal polyps Blood in the stool is similar to hemorrhoids, mostly intermittent and less bleeding. Colorectal polyps may become cancerous, so they cannot be ignored.
Anal fissures can also discharge blood in the stool. A small amount of blood stains or drips of blood are often seen on the surface of the stool or on the toilet paper. Periodic.
Colorectal cancer In the world, colorectal cancer is the fourth most malignant tumor. In 2002, there were about 1 million cases of colorectal cancer worldwide and 530,000 deaths. In the past 20 years, the incidence of colorectal cancer in China has been on the rise. According to the survey results in 2004, the incidence of colorectal cancer in large cities such as Beijing and Shanghai has risen to the second or third place among gastrointestinal cancers. According to statistics, more than 70% of colorectal cancer patients have blood in the stool, which is manifested as dark red blood in the stool, or mucinous pus and blood in the stool, or mixed blood and stool. Adults who have blood in the stool accompanied by lower abdominal distension or anemia and weight loss should be alert to colorectal cancer. According to relevant data analysis, more than half of colorectal cancers in China are located in the rectum, which is about 15 cm in length, and 65% to 75% of rectal cancers occur in the lower 2/3 of the site. Generally, a simple “digital anal examination” can be done in time. In addition, it is worth noting that rectal cancer may coexist with hemorrhoids. Therefore, sufficient attention should be paid to blood in the stool. In order to detect colon and rectal cancer in time, "anal digital examination" must be performed, and sigmoidoscopy or fiber colonoscopy should be performed if necessary. an examination. However, it is a pity that at present, 50% of patients who are not diagnosed in time due to blood in stools of rectal cancer are delayed for half a year, 70% of patients are delayed for 3 months, and less than 10% of patients receive timely diagnosis and treatment. Rectal cancer is divided into three stages: early, middle, and late. The 5-year survival rate for early stage patients after treatment can reach 90% to 100%, the middle stage can reach 40% to 60%, and the late stage can only be less than 20%. Therefore, early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment of rectal cancer are very important.
Ulcerative colitis Ulcerative colitis often causes chronic diarrhea, stools 2 to 4 times or more per day, mucous pus and blood in the stool, and abdominal pain and fever. The diagnosis can be confirmed by fiber colonoscopy. The incidence of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis is 5-10 times that of the normal population, and the degree of malignancy is high. Therefore, early diagnosis and early treatment should also be given.
In addition, food poisoning, bacillary dysentery, amoebic dysentery, blood diseases, vitamin C and K deficiency, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, allergic purpura, and intussusception in children can also cause blood in the stool.
In short, blood in the stool is often a signal of many diseases, including the digestive system and the whole body
Diseases of other systems can cause blood in the stool, and a considerable number of patients with blood in the stool are patients with colorectal cancer, which is extremely harmful to humans, so any form of blood in the stool should be dealt with
Seeing a doctor early may be a simple "one finger" (digital rectal examination) to confirm the diagnosis and surgical treatment as soon as possible to save precious lives.