In recent years, the annual physical examination has become a major health issue that everyone pays attention to. At the same time, as the examination equipment becomes more advanced, various "nodules", "polyps", "cysts", "hemangiomas" and other examination results are increasing. The more it appears on the medical report.
With the appearance of these words, many people immediately start to think of cancer anxiously. Even if the outpatient review confirms that it is not cancer, they are always worried about whether it will develop into cancer.
So, are these extra parts hidden in the body "invisible bombs", or should they "disarm them as soon as possible"?
Not all high-risk words such as "nodules" and "polyps" that have the risk of disease have to be equated to cancer, especially for the more common diseases such as thyroid nodules and rectal polyps, whether it is necessary to "defuse bombs as soon as possible" is also It is necessary to divide the condition according to different situations and make corresponding treatment.
Compared with the high-risk types of "nodules" and "polyps," "hemangiomas" and "cysts" are mild benign tumors, which are relatively safer, and among them are liver hemangioma and simple renal cysts. More out rate.
"Indolent tumors" should not be removed hastily
"Nodules" are no stranger to us now, especially thyroid nodules. According to Pan Yunfeng, due to the advanced B-ultrasound technology and the clear optimization of the grading system, the probability of thyroid nodules being found is greatly increased. Basically, nodules over 3 mm can be seen, and the detection rate is greatly increased. Nodules are getting more and more attention.
Don't be too alarmed to see thyroid nodules, the key is to see the level of B-ultrasound identification. According to the American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Report and Data System (TI-RADS) standards, thyroid nodules are divided into 5 categories, of which categories 1-3 have little effect. Basically, regular follow-up is recommended, generally one year Once or once a year and a half, categories 4-5 need to be paid attention to, and a needle biopsy should be done according to the doctor’s recommendation.
There will be many patients who over-examine during the medical consultation process, and they are frequently examined out of fear. In some cases, patients are over-treated and rashly undergoing thyroidectomy, but after this resection, it will not only have a certain impact on the body, but also need to take thyroid tablets for life. In fact, these excessive worries are unnecessary, because thyroid nodules develop slowly, even most thyroid cancers are "indolent tumors" and basically do not metastasize or worsen.
However, if the nodules are relatively large and cause compression symptoms to the organs around the trachea, then surgery needs to be considered.
The probability of lung cancer is very low
In the past, most physical examinations were chest radiographs, and this type of examination generally failed to find small lung nodules. However, with the increase in the incidence of lung cancer, many units have upgraded the chest radiographs in the physical examination items to CT. With the popularity of this project, the frequency of the words "small lung nodules" on the physical examination report has increased.
Is the lung nodule lung cancer? Or will it develop into lung cancer?
According to data, most of the small lung nodules are caused by benign diseases. The probability of lung nodules smaller than 6 mm is less than 1%. Therefore, there is no need to worry too much. Pulmonary nodules with a diameter between 6-8 mm have a lung cancer probability of 0.5%-2%, and a lung nodule with a diameter greater than 8 mm has a lung cancer probability of greater than 3%.
Pan Yunfeng emphasized that in addition to the size of the nodules, doctors still need to comprehensively evaluate whether there are edge burrs, doubled growth rates, and poor pulmonary nodules. Among high-risk groups, those with a long history of smoking, family history of lung cancer, or other cancers need to pay extra attention and follow-up in time. The general interval is 3-6 months.
Early detection of anal examination reduces risk
When physical examinations are popular, people still resist, especially when facing embarrassing digital anal examinations.
“About 20% of people refuse the digital anal examination. Some young people are afraid of embarrassment, and some are afraid of pain, so they just skip the anal examination.” Pan Yunfeng said, “but an anal examination is very necessary. This is also very helpful for the early detection rate of tumors in the middle and lower rectum."
"Don't think that your life is very healthy, just ignore the usual physical examination." Pan Yunfeng mentioned a patient who was impressed, a 69-year-old uncle, because he was in good health and never had a physical examination. Recently, I came for a health checkup because I was traveling to Tibet. It turned out that colon cancer was found, and many cases have metastasized to the liver. After the doctor asked him in a trance, the patient remembered that he had had blood in the stool, but he had always thought it was hemorrhoids, so he didn't pay attention to it, which eventually led to tragedy.
"It's easy to treat it as bleeding from hemorrhoids. I don't worry about it." Pan Yunfeng emphasized that the symptoms of rectal polyps are no different from acne bleeding, and they are easily confused. However, some intestinal polyps are prone to cancer. Once found, intestinal polyps should not be taken lightly. It is necessary to understand the nature of intestinal polyps, especially adenomatous polyps. Therefore, it is recommended to have regular anal examinations or rectal endoscopes, and timely detection of surgical resection can reduce the risk.
It is recommended to remove the gallbladder if it exceeds 0.8 cm
According to the survey, the incidence of gallbladder polyps is nearly 6% in China, and there is almost one in 16 people. Moreover, most patients have no symptoms of discomfort, and they are often found accidentally by abdominal ultrasound during health examinations or population censuses. Symptomatic patients, the most common symptom is upper abdominal discomfort, but it is generally not serious.
A gallbladder polyp is actually a bump on the gallbladder mucosa. It is a benign tumor. Whether it will become cancerous or not depends on the size and growth rate of the polyp.
Gallbladder polyps are different from common gastric polyps, cervical polyps, and rectal polyps. They can be removed by minimally invasive surgery. Gallbladder polyps can only be treated by removing the entire gallbladder. Therefore, do not use the knife easily on gallbladder polyps. Generally speaking, if the diameter of the polyp is 0.1 cm or less, the patient does not need to panic at all, just do a B-ultrasound examination every two years. Those gallbladder polyps that are more than 0.8 cm in diameter, especially more than 1 cm, or that grow very fast, cause cholecystitis by polyps, and have a high risk of cancer, are recommended for treatment.
Will cholecystectomy have a great impact on the body? According to Pan Yunfeng, the gallbladder is mainly responsible for the secretion of bile in our body and affects digestion. Generally speaking, the removal of the gallbladder has little effect on the body.
Don't worry too much about bursting within 5cm
Hepatic hemangioma is a relatively common benign tumor of the liver, among which cavernous hemangioma is the most common, and patients basically have no obvious symptoms of discomfort.
Generally speaking, hepatic hemangioma smaller than 5 cm does not develop without any conscious symptoms and generally does not need treatment. However, hepatic hemangioma is too large, usually more than 5 cm, or when the surrounding gastrointestinal organs are compressed, corresponding symptoms will occur, such as liver discomfort, loss of appetite, feeling of fullness or belching after a meal, nausea, indigestion, Jaundice and so on, this is the need for timely medical treatment.
Pan Yunfeng said that patients with hepatic hemangioma are most worried about blood vessel rupture and bleeding. It feels like a balloon that ruptures when touched. In fact, a few centimeters of hemangioma will not rupture and bleed. However, hemangiomas that are too large or have thin cyst walls, especially close to the liver surface, may even rupture and bleed spontaneously due to external forces and other factors. This situation can be very dangerous and requires attention.
"Simple Renal Cyst"
No symptoms can be treated without treatment
Kidney cyst is also a condition often found in physical examination. In fact, similar to liver cysts, simple renal cysts are common in the population, but they are not innate. They are related to age. The older the age, the higher the incidence. Cysts are urine that leaks out of the kidneys. There is no possibility of malignant transformation. They are generally small, develop slowly, are asymptomatic, and do not require treatment.
Treatment is only needed when the kidney cyst exceeds 5 cm, or the cyst compresses the surrounding tissues, and symptoms such as waist pain, soreness, and weakness of the lower limbs occur.
The treatment method can be divided into puncture and laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery according to the depth of the cyst location. After a simple renal cyst is found, the kidney color Doppler ultrasound should be reviewed three months or six months later to see the growth rate of the cyst. If the growth is slow, you only need to check the color Doppler ultrasound observation every other year.