With the continuous improvement of people’s health awareness, more and more attention has been paid to physical examinations. The citizens who have the conditions are often willing to spend a lot of money on physical examinations and do expensive “big” examinations such as MR and CT, but many people ignore some of the cheapest and most basic ones. Routine inspection. For example, a simple examination of stool routine (or stool examination) is often regarded as "useless and undesirable" examination. However, this simple examination can feed back many signs of digestive tract diseases.
In the physical examination, blood routine has become one of the indispensable items. People are more willing to accept this form of blood sampling, but the stool routine is often given up because of the "troublesome" and "dirty" sampling. Therefore, in the physical examination packages launched by many hospitals or physical examination institutions, there is no trace of stool routines at all, and few citizens choose stool routines in physical examinations.
Although the hospital attaches great importance to stool routines and often guides units and individuals that perform physical examinations to do this project, the number of people who do it is still far less than blood routines. The reason why the stool routine is lacking in people's attention is mainly because the sampling method is too troublesome and simply does not do it, or the understanding of the stool routine is still in a state of "Isn't it just checking for parasites? It doesn't matter if it is not checked".
In fact, stool is the "alarm" for various digestive diseases. The color and characteristics of stool are closely related to the disease: blackened stool may be caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeding, dark red stool may be caused by intestinal ulcers or polyps or even colorectal cancer...
A simple stool routine can reflect many problems:
Fecal occult blood: It can detect a very small amount of bleeding in the stool that is invisible to the naked eye. The common diseases of occult blood include tumors, ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, bleeding caused by diseases, polyps, etc. Normal colorectal cancer patients and one-third of adenoma patients will experience regular bleeding. 20% of patients with gastrointestinal cancer can be positive for occult blood, and the positive rate of occult blood for advanced patients is more than 90%. The routine occult blood test of stool in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and gastrointestinal ulcer is also mostly positive or intermittently positive.
White blood cells: High white blood cells indicate inflammation. Know whether there are bacterial infections in the digestive tract.
Eggs: Routine stool inspection can also check for parasitic infections, which is more meaningful for Cantonese who love to eat raw fish.
You can also observe "shape" and "color"
Normal stool contains fecal bilidin, so it is yellow or brown. The change of stool color or shape is often closely related to digestive system diseases.
Black or tarry stool: seen in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; hemoglobin will turn black under the action of intestinal bacteria. Common causes are: bleeding from stomach or duodenal ulcers, bleeding from esophageal varices.
Dark red, red: mostly lower gastrointestinal bleeding, if the amount of bleeding is particularly large or the bleeding location is relatively low, it will be dark red or red if it is too late to be broken down by bacteria. Common causes are: tumors, inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, and anal fissures.
Grayish white ("white clay-like"): It may be due to jaundice or bile duct obstruction due to various reasons (calculi, tumors, roundworms, etc.), resulting in the inability to excrete biliflavin in the stool.
But you should also know that black stool is also related to food or drugs. For example, if you eat pig blood, your stool will turn black. If you eat more green vegetables, the chlorophyll content will be high and the stool will be green. Patients with stomach disease will take bismuth-containing stomach medicine. Patients with iron deficiency anemia will often take iron supplements, and the stool will also appear black .
However, if you do not have the above common reasons but pull black stool or dark red bloody stool, you should pay attention to it, because this is the performance of gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemoglobin will turn black under the action of intestinal bacteria. If the amount of bleeding is particularly large Or the bleeding position is relatively low, and it will be dark red or red if it is too late to be broken down by bacteria.
Whether it is upper gastrointestinal bleeding or lower gastrointestinal bleeding, it has a characteristic that blood and stool are mixed together. If the blood is only attached to the surface of the stool or drips after the stool, this situation is bleeding near the rectum and anus, and the most common is hemorrhoids.
Some disease information can also be learned by observing the shape of stool. Normal stool should be cylindrical and soft. The abnormal shapes include: too hard, too rotten, or even mucus or watery. Spherical hard stool: visible when constipation; loose mucus: found when the intestinal wall is irritated or inflamed, such as enteritis, dysentery and acute schistosomiasis; mucous pus and blood stool: more common in bacillary dysentery; sauce-colored mucous stool: more common in amoebic dysentery ; Watery, egg-like stools: can be seen in acute gastroenteritis, pseudomembranous enteritis and cryptosporidium infection in large quantities. Pasty stool: more common in small bowel disorders.
Attachment: How to distinguish hemorrhoid bleeding from colorectal cancer bleeding
Colorectal cancer: Most of the blood in the stool of colorectal cancer is dark red, which is generally confused with stool. In the middle and advanced stages, pus and blood may appear in the stool. In addition to the symptoms of blood in the stool, bowel cancer is also a typical symptom of changes in stool habits, such as thinner stools and increased frequency. You should be vigilant and go to a regular hospital for examination.
Hemorrhoids: hemorrhoids: hemorrhoids usually occur after defecation. It is in the form of dripping or spraying. The blood is bright red and the blood does not mix with the stool. Hemorrhoids cause blood in the stool and the amount of bleeding is variable, and some have intermittent stool bleeding. Severe cases will inevitably bleed every time you have a bowel movement.