Colorectal polyps is a general term for all neoplasms protruding into the intestinal lumen, including neoplastic neoplasms and non-neoplastic neoplasms. Neoplastic polyps generally do not disappear on their own and have a tendency to become malignant and should not be ignored. The so-called colorectal polyps in clinical practice does not explain the pathological nature of polyps. Usually, the clinical polyps are mostly non-neoplastic polyps, and neoplastic polyps are collectively called adenomas. Polyps vary in size and can be pedicled or broad-based; they can be distributed in a certain segment of the colon and rectum, and can also involve the entire colon and rectum; they can be singly or scattered, or many polyps can be gathered in together. It can be as small as sesame and mung beans, with a diameter of only a few millimeters, or as large as a walnut, with a diameter of 2 to 3 cm.
(1) What are the causes of colorectal polyps?
Mainly include familial factors, genetic factors, inflammatory factors, environment, diet and other factors.
(2) How to classify the clinicopathological types of colorectal polyps?
1. Adenomatous (new biological) polyps: including tubular, villous, and tubular villous adenomas. This type of polyps has the highest probability of cancerous transformation, especially villous, which is called precancerous lesions.
2. Inflammatory polyps: including polyps caused by inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Croce's disease, and schistosomiasis.
3. Hamartoma: Juvenile polyps and pigmented polyp syndrome.
4. Hyperplastic polyps: also known as metaplastic polyps.
5. Juvenile polyps: mostly occur in children under 10 years of age. They are round or oval in appearance, smooth in surface, most have pedicles, and histologically appear as well differentiated and irregularly sized glands. Such polyps generally do not undergo malignant transformation.
(3) What are the clinical manifestations of colorectal polyps?
The clinical symptoms of colorectal polyps are often different, such as blood in the stool, abdominal pain, prolapse of the mass outside the anus, changes in bowel habits, anal secretions, anal itching, etc. Even if some patients have some gastrointestinal symptoms, such as bloating, diarrhea, constipation, etc., they are ignored because they are mild and atypical. However, it is often misdiagnosed as anal diseases such as hemorrhoids or "dysentery" for treatment of blood, stool with blood, mucus and blood, and the necessary examination is delayed.
Those with unexplained blood in the stool or gastrointestinal symptoms should come to the hospital for colonoscopy in time. Especially middle-aged and elderly people over 40 years old should pay attention to further diagnosis.
(4) How to treat colorectal polyps once they are found?
The principle of treatment of colorectal polyps is to surgically remove polyps when they are found. Including local surgical removal and various removal methods under endoscopy. At present, endoscopic treatment has made great progress. Even some large polyps can be removed endoscopically, which provides convenience for polyp pathological biopsy. For the removed polyps, pathological examination is often recommended to clarify the degree of dysplasia and avoid missing malignant changes.
(5) What is the prognosis of colorectal polyps?
Some colorectal polyps have a certain tendency to become cancerous under the long-term stimulation of certain factors, but not all colorectal polyps will become cancerous. The probability of malignant canceration of colorectal polyps is related to the shape and size of polyps. It must be vigilant.
(6) How to prevent and control in daily life?
1. People with a family history of colorectal polyps should be checked regularly for early detection of polyps and timely treatment.
2. Develop a good lifestyle and maintain good bowel habits.
3. Light diet, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, increase the content of dietary fiber, and reduce the intake of irritating foods such as fried, smoked and pickled.