Cancer is a common and frequently-occurring disease that seriously endangers people's lives and health. About 1.6 million people suffer from cancer each year in China. Cancer is surpassing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as the leading cause of death. The esophagus, stomach, and large intestine in the digestive tract are the most common sites for cancer. Cancer patients in these three locations account for more than a quarter of patients with common malignant tumors. Among the top five deaths due to cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, and colorectal cancer occupy the first, third, and fifth places; in the world, China has the highest incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer, and half of esophageal cancer patients are human. The incidence of gastric cancer in Asia and China ranks among the top three. Due to the large population, 160,000 people die from gastric cancer each year. Colorectal cancer, including colon cancer and rectal cancer, ranks second in Europe and the United States, and China ranks fifth among various cancers. The incidence has increased significantly in recent years. This shows that digestive tract cancer is a common and common malignant tumor. disease.
How can we change the high incidence of gastrointestinal cancer, more deaths, and great harm to people's health? First of all, we must take measures against carcinogenic factors. Among the many cancers, digestive tract cancer is the most closely related to environmental factors. The commonly called “cancer enters the mouth” is reasonable. Active cancer prevention is only one way to reduce the prevalence. On the one hand, we must work hard to achieve "three early", early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment, and everything starts from "early". To achieve this goal, medical staff and the general public need to act together to change customs, change unreasonable eating habits, protect the environment, increase vigilance, early recognition and detection of cancer.
1. Esophagus and Cardia Cancer
Risk factors that cause esophageal and cardia cancer: (1) Tobacco and alcohol: Long-term smoking and drinking are related to the occurrence of esophageal cancer. Some studies have found that the incidence of esophageal cancer in heavy drinkers is 50 times higher than that in non-drinkers, and the incidence of esophageal cancer in people who smoke a lot is 7 times higher than that in non-smokers. The incidence of alcoholics and smokers is neither drinking nor drinking. 156 times that of non-smokers. Although wine itself has no carcinogenic effect, alcohol is a solvent for certain carcinogens. Spirits may also cause damage to the esophageal mucosa. Nitrosamines may also be contaminated in wine, creating conditions for the occurrence of esophageal cancer. (2) Local damage to the esophagus: long-term consumption of hard food, hot soup, hot porridge, hot tea or peppers and other irritating foods, or have bad hygiene habits such as fast swallowing, poor chewing, and overeating. These factors can cause mechanical or physical stimulation and damage to the esophageal mucosa, create conditions for the entry of carcinogens, and promote the occurrence of cancer. (3) Nitrosamines: Nitrosamine compounds are a strong carcinogen, and a dozen kinds of nitrosamines are known to cause esophageal cancer in animals. High levels of nitrate and nitrite can be detected in grains, sauerkraut, and well water in Lin County, a high-incidence area of esophageal cancer, and their content is positively correlated with the local prevalence of esophageal epithelial hyperplasia and esophageal cancer. (4) Molds: Studies have found that more than 10 mycotoxins can induce tumors in different organs of animals. Epidemiology found that mold contamination in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer was 2 to 15 times higher than in low-incidence areas. (5) Nutrition and trace elements: The high incidence areas of esophageal cancer in the world are generally poor and backward areas, and the diet lacks vitamins, protein and essential fatty acids. The lack of these components can make the esophageal mucosal epithelial hyperplasia, anaplasia, and further cancer. The lack of trace elements such as iron, molybdenum and zinc is also related to the occurrence of esophageal cancer. (6) Genetic susceptibility: Clinical epidemiological studies have found that esophageal cancer has a certain familial aggregation, and genetic factors cannot be ruled out.
Early signs of esophageal cancer: (1) Choking: it means that there is resistance when swallowing food, the swallowing is not smooth, there is a sense of blockage, or a foreign body sensation, and it is gradually aggravated. It happens once or twice at the beginning and heals itself without treatment. It reappears in the next few days or months, and the frequency and choking degree gradually increase. This is a common manifestation of early esophageal cancer. (2) Difficulty in swallowing: There is a slight feeling of tightness, discomfort or dull pain behind the sternum when swallowing. The degree of pain is not necessarily related to the hardness of eating. When drinking water, alcohol or acidic beverages, persistent burning pain in the esophagus often occurs Or tingling. After swallowing, this feeling will gradually subside. (3) Swallowing foreign body sensation: When swallowing, I feel that there is a foreign body in the esophagus, like rice grains or tea fragments sticking to the esophagus, unable to swallow or vomit. Sometimes when I eat my first bite of food, I always feel obstructed, and the movement of food in the esophagus seems to be felt. The incidence of the above three symptoms accounts for more than 80% of all early esophageal cancer symptoms, and the feeling of swallowing discomfort accounts for more than 30% of all symptoms.
2. Gastric cancer
Gastric cancer is a multifactorial disease, the cause of which is not yet fully understood. According to the current research data, the occurrence of gastric cancer is related to the following factors: (1) Diet and living habits: In poor mountainous areas, residents who eat pickles, bacon, and smoked food as the main non-staple food have a significantly higher incidence of gastric cancer.Residents with good economic conditions and high intake of protein, fresh vegetables and fruits in non-staple foods will significantly reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. People who smoke for a long time have a significantly higher incidence of gastric cancer, and smoking has cancer-causing and promoting effects on the stomach. Long-term drinking has a synergistic and promoting effect with other factors that cause gastric cancer. (2) Environmental factors: Epidemiological surveys have found that areas where the soil and drinking water lack trace elements (such as copper, manganese, zinc, selenium, and magnesium) have an increased incidence of gastric cancer. The incidence of gastric cancer among residents living in mining areas or asbestos mining areas has increased significantly. (3) Immune factors: The incidence of gastric cancer is relatively high for those with low immune function, because immune dysfunction can reduce the effect of cancer immune surveillance. (4) Genetic factors: Most retrospective survey data believe that genetic factors have a relatively positive role in the etiology of gastric cancer, and there is a clear tendency for family aggregation. It is generally believed that the incidence of gastric cancer among relatives of gastric cancer patients is four times higher than that of the control group. According to data records, Napoleon's grandfather, father, sister and himself all died of stomach cancer. (5) Infectious factors: High-risk groups of Helicobacter pylori infection have a lower risk of gastric cancer and 6 times higher risk of infections. Helicobacter pylori infection is a causative factor of peptic ulcer and a risk factor of gastric cancer. (6) Other factors: Many diseases are considered to be related to the occurrence of gastric cancer, such as chronic atrophic gastritis, chronic gastric ulcer, gastric polyps and so on.
Early signs of gastric cancer: (1) Aged over 40, no history of stomach disease, sudden loss of appetite, fullness after meals, dull pain or weight loss in the upper abdomen, especially belching with sour smell or egg smell. (2) The original history of gastric disease, the regular pain in the past changes suddenly, or it turns into persistent dull pain, and the treatment effect of gastric ulcer is not good. (3) Usually there is little gastric acid, love to eat acidic foods, or have been diagnosed with atrophic gastritis or dysplasia, have a long medical history, and suddenly lose weight, anemia, fear of greasy eating or worsening of indigestion symptoms. (4) Aged over 40, with a history of gastrointestinal disease, sudden gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis or melena), or continuous fecal occult blood test for more than two weeks. (5) Gastric ulcer does not heal after regular treatment for more than two months. (6) Progressive weight loss and anemia, accompanied by indigestion symptoms.
Three, colorectal cancer
The age at which colorectal cancer is likely to occur is generally 50 to 70 years old, with more men than women. The cause of colorectal cancer is not clear, but there are internal and external factors. Internal factors such as genetic inheritance; external factors such as long-term inflammation, chronic stimulation, eating habits, etc. The incidence of colorectal cancer is the result of the synergistic effect of internal and external factors. There are mainly the following aspects: (1) Dietary factors: It is currently believed that high-fat, high-animal protein, and low-fiber diets are the main dietary factors for the incidence of colorectal cancer. (2) Precancerous lesions: The malignant tendency of colonic adenomas, papillomas and polyps is a certain fact. The incidence of colorectal cancer in patients with colon and rectal polyps is significantly higher than that of normal people. (3) Chronic inflammation: Some chronic inflammatory stimuli are also one of the factors in the onset of colorectal cancer, such as chronic ulcerative colitis and schistosomiasis. (4) Adverse irritation: The incidence of colorectal cancer is related to stimulating factors such as constipation and smoking. In addition, the status of nitrosamine compounds in the etiology of colorectal cancer has also received increasing attention in recent years. Such compounds can form certain carcinogenic amines under the action of bacteria in the colon. (5) Genetic factors: Family members of colorectal cancer patients are 4 times more likely to die of colorectal cancer than general family members, which may be related to the same diet or genetic factors.
Some data show that the misdiagnosis rate of colorectal cancer can reach 40% to 60%, or even higher, about 1 year from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis. The early symptoms of colorectal cancer are atypical and are often confused with bowel dysfunction, indigestion, enteritis, and dysentery. The symptoms are also different due to different locations of cancer. Early signs of colorectal cancer: (1) There is blood in the stool, and hemorrhoids cannot be explained. (2) Patients with persistent or recurrent episodes of pus and blood in the stool, with a feeling of incomplete drainage, and poor treatment of dysentery. (3) Changes in bowel habits, abnormal bowel frequency or mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, or alternating between the two, more attention should be paid to more than 3 weeks. (4) The stool shape changes, becomes thinner, flattened, or has grooves. (5) Anemia, repeated stool examinations or persistent occult blood. (6) Persistent lower abdominal discomfort, dull pain or bloating, abdominal mass, weight loss.
The occurrence and development of cancer does not appear in the morning, it has a long time for us to intervene. As long as we change our bad living habits, pay attention to and be alert to the early signs of cancer, the cure rate and survival rate of cancer will surely be greatly improved.