2020年11月10日星期二

hemorrhoids or anal cancer,Precautions after anal disease

    1. Observation in bed: After the operation, you need to stay in bed before the anesthesia subsides (local anesthesia is not restricted, intravenous anesthesia 2h, spinal anesthesia 4h), can move in bed, pay close attention to the incision dressing and drainage tube bleeding, if more, you need to ring the bell Call the nurse.

    2. Diet: After the anesthesia subsides, you can drink water. You can eat light and easy to digest liquid and semi-liquid, but do not eat soy products and dairy products to prevent flatulence. Eat a normal diet from the next day, eat more vegetables and fruits, and ensure drinking water. After the operation, try to maintain a regular meal and do not go on a diet, because dieting will cause insufficient stool volume. If the water in the stool is absorbed by the intestine for a long time, it is easy to cause dry stool, causing constipation and weakened defecation reflex. Fasting spicy and irritating food, eating less or not eating beef, mutton, turtle, pigeon, black fish and seafood, no need to use supplements and health products.

    3. Urination: a small number of patients may cause urinary sphincter spasm due to anesthesia, pain, tension and other reasons after urinary dysfunction or urinary retention. After the operation, "Hale 1 capsule" is routinely given to promote urination. In addition, hot compress and water sound Urinary catheters must be inserted for those who are unable to urinate after the stimulation induces urination. For elderly men with enlarged prostate, it is recommended that the catheter be indwelled for 2-3 days after catheterization. After the stool is removed, the probability of reintubation is reduced.

    4. Defecation and bleeding: Since there is an enema before the operation, there is generally no bowel movement on the day after the operation. The next day, start to take stool softening drugs (choose according to the condition, such as lactulose oral liquid). , The doctor should be notified in time to give Kaisailu or enema to laxative. Because the anal incision is an open type, a small amount of bleeding will occur intermittently during defecation, which is a normal phenomenon and is caused by unhealed wounds, friction with stool or dilatation of the anus. If the bleeding does not stop or a lot of blood comes out in the stool, you should immediately report to the doctor and nurse for prompt treatment.

    5. Pain, distension and discomfort: Due to the presence of incisions and dense distribution of nerves in the anus, postoperative pain is more sensitive, and analgesics will be routinely applied. In addition, in addition to pain, some patients may have burning irritation in the anus and frequent defecation, incomplete defecation, and anal swelling. These are common symptoms after anal surgery, mainly related to surgical trauma that stimulates the skin of the anal canal. And tooth line, ligation of hemorrhoids and other reasons.

    6. Sitz bath: Chinese medicine sitz bath can not only clean the anus, but also promote wound healing, reduce swelling and relieve pain. It is a simple and effective treatment method for anal diseases after surgery. Medicine combination: 2 packs of Chinese medicine (200ml/pack) + 2 small bottles of Kangfuxin Liquid (10ml/bottle) + appropriate amount of hot water, the water temperature is subject to not hot (about 40℃), put the anus and perineum into the basin to wash and sit Bath, about 10 minutes each time, the wounds with larger wounds and more secretions, it is recommended to take a bath in the morning and evening for better results.

    7. Dressing change: Try to avoid defecation within 24 hours. The hemostatic sponge and external dressing in the anus are used for compression to stop bleeding. The dressing will be removed and disinfected the next day when the dressing is changed. On the first day after surgery, there is no need to take a bath with Chinese medicine. Bring suppositories, ointments, medium sheets and pressure sensitive tapes to the doctor in charge for dressing change. After being discharged from the hospital, you can buy iodophor cotton swabs and a suitable size applicator, and family members can change the dressing on their behalf, which is more convenient.

    8. Postoperative activities: Proper walking is required after surgery, especially in the morning and after meals, which can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and help defecation, but not excessive to avoid fatigue and discomfort. You can use the doughnut cushion when sitting to avoid pressure on the anus. Do not sit or stand for a long time.

    9. Bathing: After anal disease, if it is not very painful, you can take a bath one day after the operation. Do not use soap or shower gel on the wound when bathing (waterproof dressing can be used to protect the anus and the indwelling needle on the body), and light salt water can be used after bathing Or rinse the anus with clean water, apply hemorrhoid ointment after drying the water, and cover it with gauze.

    10. Discharge note: Check once a week after discharge. Under normal circumstances, the patient will be cured after 2-3 rechecks. Discomfort will be followed up. Sexual life should be avoided during the wound healing period after anal disease operation, and the hospital stay should be about 4 days (special circumstances need to be extended, such as complicated anal fistulas and perianal abscesses). Therefore, the wound did not heal when discharged, and the dressing should be changed daily after discharge. If necessary, the wound should be changed regularly. Some people think that the more frequent dressing changes, the better. In fact, too many dressing changes will delay wound healing, because frequent stimulation of the wound can cause pain and damage granulation and new epithelial tissue.

    ---This article is aimed at patients in this hospital.

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