There is a saying in the West: A pregnant woman is the most beautiful. When you want to experience the magic and beauty of nurturing life, you must be curious, expectant and full of worries: How can we give birth to a healthy and smart child? Checkup before pregnancy can help you.
In order to love the future baby responsibly, it is best for the couple to undergo a comprehensive and systematic pre-pregnancy physical examination one year before pregnancy and at least 3 months before pregnancy. Many young couples complain that they are confused about pre-pregnancy examinations and find it particularly cumbersome. Therefore, the author uses the following classification method to introduce. In this way, it becomes clear at a glance which department to go to, which department to check and what items.
1. Male examination (urology or male reproduction)
1. Sperm examination
Sperm is a very important aspect of eugenics. Through routine semen inspection and sperm function inspection, it is possible to understand the male's sperm output, total number of sperm, density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, presence or absence of mold and trichomonas infection, etc., for eugenics be prepared. If you find that sperm motility is not high or the number of abnormal sperm is too high, you can find the cause and treat it in time.
Assessing sperm quality, specimens are the most critical link. Before taking specimens, male abstinence should not be less than 3 days, but not more than 7 days, and about 5 days is most appropriate. The temperature requirement when taking sperm is also very high, preferably between 25°C and 37°C, too high or too low temperature will affect sperm motility and quality.
When evaluating sperm quality, it is best to collect sperm in a special sperm collection room in the hospital. However, some men find it inconvenient to be in the hospital and choose to stay at home. This requires first attention to the appropriate temperature for sperm sample collection and sperm delivery. Prepare a special bottle for storing sperm specimens and send them to the laboratory within half an hour after the sperm is taken. The specimens must be kept intact and not spilled, so as not to affect the accuracy of the test results.
2. STD examination: including men’s semen mycoplasma and chlamydia examination. Blood syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, AIDS test
Because these diseases are all sexually transmitted diseases, husbands and wives can transmit each other, which is detrimental to the health of the fetus.
In addition, the husband should also check the blood type, which is helpful to determine the blood type incompatibility between mother and child. You will also receive a full set of orthodontic examination with your wife. The significance of the examination will be described in detail in the following content.
2. Women's examination (including obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, surgery, stomatology, eugenics and nursing)
1. Self-test weight
Generally, body fat is measured by body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters). If the weight is 55 kg and the height is 1.60 meters, the BMI is about 21.5. The female body mass index is 20-25 is the standard weight, and the reproductive ability is the most vigorous. Being too thin or overweight can disrupt a woman's ovulation cycle.
2. Obstetrics and gynecology examination
★ Examination of reproductive organs: whether there are malformations such as vaginal mediastinum, double uterus, etc., whether there is cervical erosion, if so, cytology should be performed to exclude cervical cancer[*3]. Cervical erosions above degree II require treatment first.
★ Routine examination of vaginal secretions: Trichomonas, molds, miscellaneous bacteria[*4], and gonococcal infections can be found. These diseases can aggravate during pregnancy and even cause amnitis, miscarriage, premature delivery, etc. Therefore, treatment should be performed before pregnancy. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection of the newborn during childbirth can lead to pyorrhea and even blindness.
★ Culture of mycoplasma and chlamydia in vaginal secretions: If there is, it is not easy to get pregnant. Miscarriage and premature delivery are prone to occur during pregnancy. You can get pregnant after cure.
★ A full set of malformation examination: including rubella, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Once these four pathogens are infected, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, they can cause miscarriage and fetal malformations. Therefore, if toxoplasma and giant cell infections are diagnosed after examination, they should be treated immediately and not pregnant. When the rubella antibody titer is greater than 1:20, it has a protective effect. Those who do not have rubella antibodies or have not reached the effective index value can be vaccinated with rubella live vaccine, with a protection rate of more than 90%, but avoid pregnancy within 3 months after injection. Rubella vaccine is injected once, and the protection time lasts for about 10 years. It has no adverse reactions and is safe and effective. Herpes simplex virus is not only related to fetal malformations and miscarriage, but also to the occurrence of cervical cancer.
★ Routine blood examination: check the blood type. If the woman has O type and the man has non-O type blood, there may be a mother-child blood type incompatibility in the first child, so we need to pay attention. If the woman is RH-negative and the man is RH-positive, the probability of maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility in the second child is 90%, and it needs to be handled appropriately during pregnancy under the guidance of a professional doctor. If there is anemia that needs timely treatment, iron deficiency will have an adverse effect on fetal development.
★ Blood glucose check: If you have diabetes, you need to adjust the amount of insulin during pregnancy and delivery. Diabetic pregnant women and fetuses are also prone to malformations, stillbirths, giant babies, and neonatal intrauterine growth retardation. Newborns are prone to respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglycemia, and neonatal jaundice, which require early prevention and correct treatment.
★ Blood hepatitis B, hepatitis C, liver and kidney function, AIDS, syphilis examination: the above diseases can be transmitted to the fetus, and may affect the fetal intrauterine development. It is best for pregnant women with hepatitis B and C to give birth by cesarean section, and timely inoculate antibodies and vaccines to the newborn after delivery. Abnormal liver and kidney function requires further investigation of the cause and symptomatic treatment. AIDS patients are not suitable for pregnancy and childbirth. Patients with syphilis can cause fetal malformations and it is best to be cured before pregnancy.
★ Blood endocrine hormone examination: including thyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone releasing hormone, adrenal cortex hormone, corticotropin releasing hormone, estrogen, androgen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, etc. Examination can find abnormalities and diseases of the thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. If abnormal estrogen, androgen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are found, the patient has irregular menstruation and may not ovulate, and systemic treatment is required before pregnancy. If necessary, the doctor will recommend you to further check the function of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus based on the examination results to further confirm the diagnosis and treatment.
★ B-ultrasound: check whether there is a tumor in the thyroid gland. If so, surgery should be done first. After half a year, check for normal thyroid function before pregnancy.
Check for gallbladder stones. If so, surgery should be done first. You can get pregnant 3 months after surgery.
Check for kidney stones. If there is, it can be solved by ultrasound in vivo lithotripsy. Otherwise, the onset of pregnancy is painful and troublesome. You can get pregnant 3 months after surgery.
Check whether the uterus and both fallopian tubes and ovaries are sound, whether the size is normal, whether there are diseases such as ovarian tumors, uterine fibroids, etc. If there are ovarian tumors, surgery is required first. If the uterine fibroids are smaller than 2 cm, you can get pregnant first and be removed together by cesarean section at the time of delivery. But uterine fibroids will increase with pregnancy, so they should be closely monitored during pregnancy. If the fibroids are larger than 2 cm, they should be treated surgically for half a year before pregnancy, otherwise the fibroids that grow during pregnancy may cause miscarriage, fetal compression, or fetal growth retardation. If the fibroids are located near the fallopian tube, they may compress the fallopian tube and cause infertility. If the fibroids are submucosal fibroids, they should be surgically removed regardless of their size.
Check whether there are congenital defects in the heart. If so, the increased burden on the heart during pregnancy may lead to heart failure, which needs to be handled according to the situation under the guidance of a professional doctor.
3. Medical examination
★ Blood pressure measurement: The basal blood pressure value before pregnancy is very helpful for the diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy after pregnancy, so it is necessary to measure blood pressure before pregnancy. If hypertension is found, it should be treated promptly under the guidance of a doctor, otherwise the condition may get worse after pregnancy, leading to serious consequences such as placental abruption, intracranial hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and intrauterine death.
★ ECG examination: ECG examination can find out whether there is myocardial ischemia, irregular heart rate and other problems. If not detected in time, the above-mentioned conditions may get worse during pregnancy.
★ Routine urinary examination: If there is urinary tract infection, nephritis, pyelonephritis, it can be detected in time, and pregnancy can only be done after cure.
★ Chest X-ray examination: exclude lung diseases. Recently, tuberculosis has a tendency to make a comeback, and X-ray examination during pregnancy will have a great adverse effect on fetal development, so it needs to be checked and treated in advance.
4. Surgical examination
★ Breast examination: palpate whether there are nodules or lumps in the breast. If so, further B-ultrasound examination is required. If it is a benign tumor, you can become pregnant after surgery. If it is breast disease, no treatment is required. If it is a malignant tumor, surgery is required. Consult a professional doctor for pregnancy after surgery.
★ Anal examination: whether there are hemorrhoids. If so, the hemorrhoids will be aggravated due to high pelvic pressure and congestion during pregnancy. It is recommended to get pregnant after proper treatment.
5. Dental examination
Before pregnancy, you should go to the stomatology department to check for dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis and other diseases and treat them accordingly. These diseases may get worse during pregnancy.
6. Genetics Consultation (Department of Eugenics and Education)
If there is a single gene (including autosomal dominant or recessive inherited disease, X chromosome dominant or recessive inherited disease), polygenic or chromosomal inherited disease [*5] such as hemophilia, deaf and dumb, Couples with albinism, ankylosing spondylitis, Down syndrome (congenital dementia), lupus erythematosus, or a history of unexplained miscarriage or teratogenesis should go to the prenatal and postnatal care clinic for genetic consultation and blood draw if necessary Check both chromosomes. There are some genetic diseases that can be screened and treated through pre-transplant diagnosis of IVF.
Finally, I also suggest that everyone choose a good season for the baby's birth. Children conceived in July, August, and September of each year will be born in April, May, and June of the following year. Babies born at this time can fully enjoy the sun for more than 3 months outdoors, which can effectively prevent respiratory diseases and rickets happened. Dear friends, in this fiercely competitive social environment, it is undoubtedly an absolute wise choice to plan ahead and prepare in advance before giving birth to a new life. In order to have a smart and healthy baby, no amount of preparation and tediousness is worth it.
How should infertile couples seek medical advice
Mysterious gift from the fetus to the mother