Colorectal cancer promotional materials
What is the incidence of colorectal cancer in China?
(1) Although the incidence is not high, the number of cases is not small. According to the national average incidence rate of 6 to 8 per 100,000, the number of new cases per year is about 45,000. The number is quite large.
(2) The rapid rate of increase is consistent with the global incidence of the disease. So far, colorectal cancer has become the third most common malignant tumor after lung cancer and gastric cancer.
(3) The age of onset of colorectal cancer in China is significantly earlier. The average age of onset is only about 45 years old, which is 12 to 18 years earlier than European and American countries. A considerable part of it is rectal cancer, which is highly malignant and has poor treatment effects. The harm caused is greater.
(4) The incidence of rectal cancer in China is related to schistosomiasis. The patients with rectal cancer complicated by schistosomiasis account for 18-27% of the total number of rectal cancer patients. The high incidence area of schistosomiasis is also the high incidence area of colorectal cancer. Rectal cancer is the most common malignant tumor in Jiaxing, Yiwu, Zhejiang and other places.
What should be vigilant in the early stage of colorectal cancer?
(1) When the stool is bloody and hemorrhoids cannot be explained.
(2) Continuous or recurrent episodes of pus and blood in the stool, feeling of incomplete defecation, and poor treatment of dysentery;
(3) Changes in bowel habits, abnormal bowel frequency or bowel movements, constipation and diarrhea, or the alternation of the two, should be extra careful for more than three weeks;
(4) The shape of stool becomes thin, flat or grooved;
(5) Anemia occurs, but stool examination is repeated many times or persistent occult blood;
(6) Persistent lower abdominal discomfort, dull pain or abdominal distension, abdominal mass, and light weight.
(7) Intestinal obstruction.
.What are the high-risk factors for colorectal cancer?
(1). Family history
(2). Polyp or polyp surgery history.
(3). Patients with gynecological tumors have a history of radiotherapy, the incidence rate is 2 to 3 times higher. After the age of 40, the incidence is increasing year by year.
(4). For those with a history of colorectal cancer surgery, the probability of developing a second primary colorectal cancer is three times higher than that of ordinary people. Female patients with breast cancer or gynecological tumors are also more likely to develop colorectal cancer than the average person.
(5). In patients with long-term chronic colitis, the incidence of colorectal cancer is about 3% in the first 10 years, and it will increase by about 20% every 10 years.
(6) Middle-aged and elderly people over 40 years old with unexplained changes in bowel habits or abnormal stools.
For those with the above-mentioned conditions, the patient should seek medical treatment in time and should not be taken lightly to avoid delaying the condition.
What are the symptoms of colorectal cancer? What are the characteristics of common rectal cancer?
(1) Blood in stool
(2) Pus, blood, or mucus stool
(3) Changes in stool habits and traits
(4) Abdominal pain
(5) Abdominal lumps
(6) Chronic wasting performance
It should be noted that the above symptoms do not necessarily appear in one patient at the same time. Some symptoms are more prominent, some are not even close, which is related to the location and speed of tumor growth.
The characteristics of common rectal cancer include: ①Rectal irritation ②Hematochezia and pus and blood in the stool ③Chronic intestinal obstruction ④The location of rectal cancer is lower than other colorectal cancers. The diagnosis is not difficult but easy to misdiagnose.
How to find early colorectal cancer? How to treat early colorectal cancer with surgery?
The discovery of early colorectal cancer depends on a large-scale census. Due to various reasons, it is impossible to check all groups of people, but to check the following high-risk groups in a targeted manner
1. Adults living in areas with high incidence of colorectal cancer.
2. People who eat high-fat and low-fiber diets for a long time.
3. People with colorectal cancer patients in the family
4. Patients after colorectal cancer surgery
5. Patients with colorectal adenoma, familial colon polyposis and hereditary bowel polyp syndrome
6. Patients with schistosomiasis
7. Patients with chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases
8. Patients who have had uterine ovarian or breast cancer
9. After cholecystectomy.
When there is no general survey, people with the above-mentioned conditions should take the initiative to go to the hospital for related examinations. Screening for colorectal cancer is generally carried out in two steps. First of all, the high-risk population is subjected to preliminary screening tests. Common methods are fecal occult blood test, digital rectal examination, and carcinoembryonic antigen and other tumor marker monitoring. Then, accurate diagnosis is made for those who are positive or negative but related symptoms are obvious, such as colonoscopy and barium enema. Under fiber colonoscopy, early colorectal cancer can be manifested in the following three forms ①Polypoid localized bulge, pedicle or sessile, mostly mucosal carcinoma ②Flat bulge, which looks like a coin to the naked eye, mostly mucosa Lower layer cancer. ③ Discoid uplift, which looks like a small discoid edge uplift and a depressed center, mostly submucosal carcinoma. Through colonoscopy or tissue examination, the final diagnosis can be obtained.
The surgical methods for early colorectal cancer can be summarized as four: 1. Colonoscopic resection 2. Local resection 3. Local segmental resection 4. Radical resection.
What are the treatment methods for colorectal cancer? What are the surgical methods?
At present, patients with colorectal cancer are mostly treated with a combination of surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine. Among them, surgical treatment is the main treatment method. After the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, surgical treatment is the first option considered. So far, surgery is still the only method that can completely cure colorectal cancer, and the therapeutic effects of other methods are still difficult to compare with it. With the continuous development of technology, surgery can not only remove the primary tumor of colorectal cancer, but also clear the existing or potential lymph node metastasis. Even some patients with distant metastases such as the liver have a chance of long-term survival after surgery. For elderly patients, advanced age is not an obstacle to surgery. Adequate preoperative preparation and strict intraoperative and postoperative monitoring can effectively prevent and treat surgical complications. Clarify the importance of surgical resection in the treatment of colorectal cancer, but the patient has a clear mind when deciding which method to choose. Make the right judgment and avoid losing precious opportunity for surgery. Of course, surgical resection also has its contraindications, that is, not all colorectal cancers are suitable for surgery. The most common contraindication is colorectal cancer with multiple distant metastases, such as multiple unresectable extensive metastases in the abdominal cavity of the liver, lung, and supraclavicular lymph nodes. After the occurrence of the above situation, the operation can no longer achieve the therapeutic effect and sometimes may aggravate the patient's pain. In addition, for patients with severe heart, lung, liver, kidney and brain insufficiency or failure, and incapable of anesthesia and surgery, surgery may directly bring life-threatening, and should be taboo.
The specific surgical methods are 1. The margin of partial resection should be greater than 2 cm. 2. The margin of bowel resection should be greater than 5 cm. 3. Radical resection is the removal of the primary colorectal cancer lesions and long enough normal intestines, while removing the corresponding regional lymph nodes that may metastasize. This operation is suitable for most advanced colorectal cancers. 4. Combined organ resection includes the resection of colorectal cancer and the partial or complete resection of affected tissues and organs. It is used when colorectal cancer invades other organs and tissues of the abdominal cavity. The purpose of resection can be to cure the tumor or to achieve the effect of palliative treatment. 5. Palliative surgery 6. Total colon resection
What is the overall effect of surgical treatment of colorectal cancer?
Compared with other cancers of the human body, colorectal cancer is a kind of better treatment effect. According to domestic reports, the 5-year survival rate for early colon cancer after surgery can reach 95%~100%, and the 5-year survival rate for patients with colon cancer only invading the muscular layer of the intestinal wall without piercing the serosal layer is 52%~ 80%, and 30% to 45% of patients with lymph node metastasis. Compared with colon cancer, rectal cancer has a higher incidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the treatment effect is slightly worse. The average 5-year survival rate is about 50%. The surgical effect of colorectal cancer in the elderly is better than that of the young. Colorectal adenoma is better than primary colorectal cancer, and tubular adenoma is better than mucinous adenocarcinoma.
What factors should be considered when deciding whether to keep the anus?
There are many factors that affect the decision whether to retain the anus, and the common ones are
1. The distance between the tumor and the anal margin
2. The appearance of the tumor
3. The circumference and degree of fixation of the tumor invading the bowel
4. Pathological type of tumor
5. Lymph node metastasis around the rectum
6. The patient's wishes
What aspects of diet should be paid attention to after colorectal cancer surgery?
Attention should be paid to the diet after colorectal cancer surgery 1. Reasonable allocation of dietary structure Early after colorectal cancer surgery, the patient’s digestion and absorption capacity is weakened, so attention should be paid to the diet composition, mainly high-calorie, high-protein and high-vitamins, to provide more for collective rehabilitation Many nutrients. High-calorie foods are mainly starchy foods. High-fat foods should not be consumed. High-protein foods include all kinds of refined meat, milk, fish, and soy products. Fresh vegetables and fruits are the main source of vitamin cellulose. Some patients avoid using chicken, eggs, and seafood foods, believing that these foods are "fat" and can promote cancer recurrence, but they have not been found to have such an effect in science. Patients can choose food types and reasonable combinations according to their own conditions and habits. 2. Reasonable cooking Cooking methods directly affect the nutritional value of food. All kinds of meat should not be fried in high fire, because this will damage the vitamins and other nutrients in it, and will also produce some incomplete combustion products, some of which are toxic and carcinogenic. It should be cooked by boiling, steaming and stir-frying. All kinds of soups are foods that patients are willing to eat after surgery, but it should be noted that soups should not be the main ingredient, because the main ingredients are water and salt with low nutritional value. Fresh vegetables and fruits should be eaten raw as much as possible, and they can be made into juices and purees when there are difficulties. When it is not suitable to be eaten raw, it can be cooked for a short time instead of simmered for long. 3. Eat reasonably. The time and amount of meals should be properly mastered. Not overeating. Eat small and frequent meals in the early postoperative period, not too much each time, and the time between meals should be shortened. This is especially important for the frail, to avoid abdominal distension, loss of appetite and even acute gastric dilatation caused by excessive food intake after surgery. Normally, the normal eating habits of three meals a day can be completely restored after 2 to 3 months. 4. Foods that should not be eaten. Some foods are related to the onset of colorectal cancer. Avoid eating including cured meats, moldy grains and peanuts, excessive fat and spicy condiments.
Why do patients have to review regularly after surgery?
Although the effect of colorectal cancer surgery is better, there is still a certain recurrence rate, including systemic and local recurrence, accounting for 20% to 25% of the total number of surgical patients. The later the Dukes staging of the tumor during surgery, the higher the recurrence rate. However, this does not mean that there is no hope of cure for relapsed patients, and early detection of recurring lesions in time may still give patients a chance to cure the tumor. Such as single or limited liver metastases, local recurrence after rectal cancer surgery, etc., can be cured by surgery or other methods, and long-term survival patients are not uncommon. This is the purpose of regular review after surgery.
Tumor recurrence usually occurs within 5 years after surgery. The longer the postoperative time, the less chance of recurrence. Therefore, within 5 years after surgery, the patient should follow the doctor's instructions to go to the hospital for review. Generally, it should be reviewed every 3 months for 2 years after operation. Check once every 6 months for 2~~4 years. Check once a year from now on. During the review, the doctor should be provided with detailed inpatient surgical information. The review content generally includes: ① Whether the superficial lymph nodes are swollen, especially the left supraclavicular lymph nodes are large, often suggesting distant metastasis of the tumor. ②Abdominal examination: mainly check whether there are lumps and ascites in the abdomen. ③ Digital rectal examination to check for lumps inside and outside the rectum: not only for rectal cancer but also for other postoperative patients with colorectal cancer. Local recurrence of rectal cancer is most easily palpable through digital rectal examination, so do not miss this examination. ④ Stool occult blood test: its significance has been mentioned above. ⑤ Blood test: Postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy patients should check the white blood cell count to understand the inhibitory effect of these treatments on bone marrow. Carcinoembryonic antigen is of great significance in diagnosing the recurrence of colorectal cancer, especially in patients whose preoperative examination is abnormal, and the increase in the postoperative increase often indicates tumor metastasis (such as liver metastasis). However, its sensitivity is limited, and the detection value of carcinoembryonic antigen in a considerable number of relapsed patients is not high. ⑥Abdominal B-ultrasound: It can observe whether there are metastases and enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity of the liver. It is also an item that must be checked every time. It can find metastatic lesions about 1 cm in the liver, and the diagnostic accuracy is high. ⑦Fiber colonoscopy and air-barium enema: it is an important part of the re-examination. It can find tumor recurrence in the intestines, metachronous multiple primary colorectal cancer, and also detect and treat precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. ⑧CT and magnetic resonance imaging: not mandatory items. Only when the B-ultrasound cannot be diagnosed is it necessary to check.