Before menopause, vaginal bleeding can be caused by many factors such as endocrine, pregnancy, inflammation, contraception, trauma, etc. However, postmenopausal vaginal bleeding is usually a typical sign of gynecological diseases, most of which are benign diseases, and inflammatory diseases are the main ones. Causes such as cervical polyps, endometritis, senile vaginitis, etc., there are also bleeding caused by factors such as capillary rupture, prolonged sex life, and unremoved IUDs. But there are many possibilities for malignant lesions, such as endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, etc. We must strictly prevent the health hazards of malignant killers. The common "murderers" that cause vaginal bleeding after menopause are as follows:
1. Endometrial cancer
The risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women can account for 75%. The main manifestation is irregular vaginal bleeding, which can be accompanied by fluid discharge, lower abdominal pain and other symptoms. If you encounter such a situation in your life, you must observe the bleeding and discharge.
Now, there are many examination methods to help patients eliminate their worries:
Cytological examination should be screened first, and gynecological ultrasound as a reference. Elevated CA125 is a prompt, and diagnostic curettage is used for diagnosis. If it is really diagnosed as endometrial cancer, it can be completely cured by removing the uterus and both fallopian tubes in the early stage; when the tumor penetrates the muscle layer and lymphatic metastasis, staged surgery, combined with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy are required.
2. Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy. China accounts for 1/3 of the world’s new cases each year, and this unfortunately makes many women lie down. The clinical manifestations are symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, drainage and compression. Many hospitals across the country have launched a "three-step" diagnostic procedure: cervical cytology + HPV testing, colposcopy, and histopathology. According to the different stages of cervical cancer, early cervical cancer can be effectively cured by cervical conization or radical hysterectomy, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are preferred for advanced patients.
3. Endometrial polyps and cervical polyps
Cervical polyps grow on the cervix and are protrusions formed by excessive proliferation of the intracervix mucosa, which can be accompanied by bloody leucorrhea or spotting after sexual intercourse. Small polyps can be removed with oval forceps, and larger polyps need to be surgically removed.
Endometrial polyps grow in the uterine cavity. They are single or multiple smooth masses formed by local overgrowth of the endometrium, which can cause irregular vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography is the first choice. Once endometrial polyps are suspected, hysteroscopy is feasible and the polyps are removed under hysteroscopy.
It is worth noting that although most of the two polyps are benign, there is still a small probability of malignant transformation, which requires pathological examination to conclude.
4. Senile vaginitis
Senile vaginitis is caused by decreased estrogen levels in the body, vaginal mucosa atrophy, vaginal microenvironment is destroyed by enemy (pathogenic bacteria) invasion, and guards (lactobacillus) lose their dominant position. Some people may find that vaginal secretions become thin, or even purulent, which manifests as vaginal bleeding. If you find that there are accompanying symptoms such as vulvar burning and itching, it is basically correct!
But don’t worry too much, eat more beans and other estrogen-rich foods, or apply estrogen-containing ointment to the vagina to increase vaginal resistance and you can cure it.
Once postmenopausal vaginal bleeding occurs, you should seek medical advice in time to find out the cause and give targeted treatment. With the progress of the times, the methods of auxiliary examination and disease treatment have become more diverse, the diagnosis of the disease is more accurate, and the treatment effect has been significantly improved. It is not necessary to be too nervous to find vaginal bleeding after menopause.
At the same time, if vaginal bleeding is found after menopause, it should be identified. Due to the special physiological structure of women-the urethra, vagina, and anus are good neighbors in the perineum, so it is not easy to distinguish the location after bleeding. Urinary tract infections, cystitis, urinary tract stones; hemorrhoids, anal fissure caused by constipation and other diseases of the system can be mistaken for vaginal bleeding. When other system diseases were excluded, our focus turned back to gynecological diseases. Then, follow the recommendations of the gynecologist for diagnosis and treatment.