2020年11月12日星期四

hemorrhoids diagnosis,Summary of 111 common diseases diagnosis points

    Have you distinguished the clinical manifestations of the 111-minute disease?

    1. Peptic ulcer: The patient has a history of repeated upper abdominal pain, accompanied by acid reflux, belching, upper abdominal fullness, physical examination: soft abdomen, tenderness under the xiphoid process, no rebound pain, gastroscopy can be confirmed.

    2. Acute intestinal obstruction: Most patients have a history of abdominal surgery, with clinical manifestations such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and anal stopping to defecate, etc. The abdominal X-rays found that the gas-liquid level is helpful for identification.

    3. Acute peritonitis: The patient has clinical manifestations such as abdominal distension, abdominal pain and fever. On physical examination, there is a feeling of rubbing in the abdominal muscles, tenderness and rebound pain, and bowel sounds may be weakened or even disappear. Laboratory tests and X-ray examination help to identify.

    4. Acute appendicitis: Patients often have metastatic right lower abdomen pain. Physical examination can reveal tenderness and rebound pain in the right lower abdomen. The symptoms of this case are not supported.

    5. Perforation of peptic ulcer: The patient had a history of compound ulcer for nearly ten years. Although he had persistent epigastric pain this time, he had no normal rebound pain, muscle tension, and intestines.

    6. Acute pancreatitis: The causes are mostly bile duct stones, heavy drinking, and eating. The clinical manifestations are abdominal pain, abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, exhaust, and defecation. Auxiliary examination: abdominal B-ultrasound and upper abdominal CT can find pancreatitis Sexual exudation, examination of acute elevation of blood amylase can assist the diagnosis.

    7. Urinary and systemic infections: including pyelonephritis, perinephric abscess, etc. The cause is mostly caused by ureteral stones or urinary tract obstruction. After bacterial infection, there may be corresponding back pain, abdominal pain, distending pain or colic, high fever, abdominal CT Or B-ultrasound can further confirm the diagnosis.

    8. Urinary tract infection: Patients often have urinary tract irritation as the primary manifestation. In severe infections, fever and chills may occur, white blood cells may be detected by urinalysis, and abdominal pain may be detected by urinary calculi with infection, which can be identified by urinary tract ultrasound. not support.

    9. Urinary calculi: The patient has abdominal distension, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and other manifestations. Physical examination may have percussive pain in the kidney area and tenderness in the menstrual area of ​​the double ureter. Color Doppler ultrasound and X-ray examination of the urinary system are helpful for identification.

    10. Acute gastroenteritis: The clinical manifestations are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloating. Physical examination: tenderness in the middle and upper abdomen, active bowel sounds, and increased white blood cells in blood analysis.

    11. Acute gastritis: It is more common in eating spicy and other irritating foods, catching cold, etc., sudden upper abdominal pain, mainly under the xiphoid process, may be dull pain, colic, distending pain, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, belching, acid reflux, etc., check gastroscope Discovered acute gastric mucosal erosion, redness and other changes.

    12. Reflux esophagitis: The clinical manifestations are abdominal pain, diarrhea, burning pain in the upper abdomen and chest, with no obvious abnormal signs, and local mucosal redness in the esophagus.

    13. Esophageal cancer: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly people, with progressive dysphagia, chronic onset, esophageal barium swallowing, gastroscopy can find masses, pathological biopsy can be confirmed.

    14. Chronic enteritis: a long medical history, the etiology may be colitis, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, etc., the clinical manifestations are long-term repeated abdominal pain, diarrhea, drug treatment, the condition can be slightly alleviated, colonoscopy can be further confirmed .

    15. Intestinal tumors: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. The clinical manifestations are abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloody stools, etc., such as nausea, vomiting, gas, and unclear defecation with intestinal obstruction. Physical examination: A lump can be palpable at the lesion, and abdominal CT, colonoscopy, etc. can assist in the diagnosis.

    16. Gastric cancer: It is more common in elderly patients. It may have dull pain, colic, distending pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, etc. It can be identified by gastroscopy.

    17. Hepatic encephalopathy: Generally, there is a history of liver disease, mental disorders, lethargy or coma, there may be flapping tremor, blood biochemical indicators reflecting liver function are obviously abnormal and (or) blood ammonia is increased, and EEG is abnormal.

    18. Withdrawal syndrome: Long-term alcoholics may experience tremors, anxiety, excitement, insomnia, confusion, and gross tremor of the whole body muscles after they stop drinking or see a small amount of alcohol.

    19. Liver cirrhosis: Most patients have a history of hepatitis or excessive drinking, and abdominal masses appear after a long period of time, and most patients have systemic symptoms such as ascites and jaundice. Abdominal CT films and related blood tests can be identified.

    20. Liver cancer: There are manifestations of abdominal distension and pain in the liver area. The AFP is significantly elevated. The lesion can be found by ultrasound or CT. AFP, CT and pathological biopsy of the upper abdomen can confirm the diagnosis.

    21. Acute biliary infection: It is more common in biliary tract stones, biliary tumors and other obstructions. The clinical manifestations are fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Physical examination: Murphy's sign is positive, blood test is obviously high, abdominal ultrasound or CT Can further assist in diagnosis.

    22. Cholelithiasis: The patient's right upper abdomen pain radiates to the right back, showing paroxysmal dull pain or colic. The pain is obvious after eating greasy food. Physical examination: gallbladder tenderness is positive, Murphy's sign is positive, and the abdomen is soft. Blood analysis showed that the blood picture was increased, and CT examination of the upper abdomen showed gallbladder stones.

    23. Acute gastric mucosal tear: It is more common in violent vomiting caused by various reasons, resulting in increased gastric pressure, followed by tearing of the gastric mucosa, causing a large amount of stomach and multiple bleeding. After the onset of gastroscope, the cause can be clear.

    24. Bleeding from gastric esophageal varices: It is more common in various hepatitis and other forms of liver cirrhosis, leading to increased portal pressure, and then gastric esophageal varices. When the patient uses hard food or eats hard food, blood vessels rupture and bleeding. Check liver function, abdominal B-ultrasound, upper abdominal CT, or gastroscopy after the onset of the diagnosis.

    25. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: patients with abdominal pain, vomiting, fresh blood or dark red bloody gastric contents, and often associated with basic diseases such as peptic ulcer or esophagus and gastric varices, physical examination: appearance of anemia, upper abdominal tenderness, gastroscopy can be performed Identify the cause.

    26. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding: It is more common in intestinal tumors, intestinal vascular malformations, hemorrhoids and other causes. The clinical manifestations are generally: bloody stools, seldom melena, hematemesis or coffee-like liquid, which may be accompanied by abdominal pain and intestinal shape. Physical examination: abdominal tenderness, lumps, and active bowel sounds can be found. Colon, enteroscopy, and abdominal angiography can be used to further confirm the diagnosis.

    27. Mouth and nose bleeding: It is more common in oral mucosa, teeth, and nasal mucosa bleeding. Physical examination can find the mouth and nose bleeding points support the diagnosis.

    28. Hemoptysis: It is more common in lung diseases such as bronchiectasis, lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, tuberculosis, etc. The clinical manifestations are mostly accompanied by symptoms such as cough, sputum, fever, dyspnea, chest pain, etc. The blood is mostly fresh blood or a little sputum, brown Fluid (unless swallowed and vomited out), physical examination: lung dry and wet rales or breath sounds weakened, disappeared or strengthened, lung CT or chest X-ray can find positive lung lesions to support the diagnosis.

    29. Stroke: The patient may have a history of basic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, the patient may suddenly slurred speech, limb hemiplegia, and may be accompanied by varying degrees of consciousness disturbance. The head MRI can confirm the diagnosis.

    31. Vertigo: The patient is dizzy, visually rotating, accompanied by vomiting, stomach contents, closed eyes and improved. Physical examination: nystagmus may be present, no positive findings on physical examination of the nervous system, and no abnormalities in head CT examination.

    32. Cervical dizziness: dizziness may occur at the onset of the disease, which may be accompanied by visual rotation, nausea and vomiting, recurrent episodes, and neck pain and discomfort. Neck X-ray can be used for diagnosis.

    33. Cluster headache: This disease is more common in men. The age of onset is about 30 years old. The headache is periodic and sudden. It starts on one side of the eye socket and can radiate to the temple, mandible and forehead on the same side. It is deeply explosive. Severe pain.

    34. Posterior circulation ischemia: It can be manifested as dizziness, slow walking and other symptoms, accompanied by weakness and numbness of the limbs, blood pressure will rise during attacks, previous hypertension, atherosclerosis basic diseases, head MRA, TCD, etc. Identify.

    35. Insufficient blood supply to the brain: It can be manifested as dizziness and other symptoms, with basic cerebral atherosclerosis diseases. Head MRA, TCD, etc. can help identify.

    36. Insufficient blood supply to the basilar artery: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients with diabetes and hypertension for many years. The clinical manifestations are dizziness, nausea, vomiting, visual rotation, and generally no tinnitus. Dizziness can be induced or worsened when changing position. Check head CT Or MIR can find posterior circulation ischemia, infarction or small posterior circulation blood vessels.

    37. Meniere’s syndrome: The cause of the disease is the disorder of the inner ear lymphatic circulation. The clinical manifestations are dizziness, visual rotation, tinnitus, nausea, and vomiting. The above symptoms occur repeatedly. After treatment such as dehydration, improvement of inner ear circulation, and nutritional nerves Can get better. Head examination CT or MIR can not find corresponding lesions that can explain dizziness.

    38. Intracranial infection: It can be manifested as fever, headache, and positive signs of meningeal irritation. Head MRI and cerebrospinal fluid can help distinguish.

    39. Malignant syndrome: more patients have high fever, increased heart rate, and increased muscle tone after long-term use of antipsychotics. In severe cases, there may be signs of disturbance of consciousness. Auxiliary examination of blood and analysis of white blood cell count and myocardial enzyme spectrum CK increase, etc. Support the diagnosis of the disease.

    40. Viral encephalitis: Patients often have fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and other manifestations of elevated intracranial pressure, physical examination reveals disturbance of consciousness, and positive meningeal irritation signs. Head MRI, CT or cerebrospinal fluid examination can help confirm the diagnosis.

    41. Subdural hematoma: The patient may have a history of trauma, slurred speech, limb weakness, and may be accompanied by varying degrees of disturbance of consciousness. Head imaging examination suggests subdural hematoma.

    42. Cerebral hemorrhage: Patients usually have a history of hypertension, onset during activities, rapid onset, rapid progress, and symptoms of high intracranial pressure such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and coma. Head CT or MRI can be identified.

    43. Cerebral infarction: Patients may have a history of basic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, patients may have hemiplegia, slurred speech, severe cases may have varying degrees of consciousness disturbance, lateral signs, and head magnetic resonance can confirm.

    44. Cerebral hemorrhage: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients with basic diseases such as high blood pressure and diabetes. The clinical manifestations are sudden hemiplegia, aphasia, and sensory disturbances in the body. A large number of cerebral hemorrhage or brainstem hemorrhage can also cause unconsciousness and breathing , The heartbeat stops. After the onset of the disease, the head CT can find the responsible lesion and the diagnosis can be confirmed.

    45. Large-area cerebral infarction: At the time of acute onset, there may be disturbances in consciousness, symptoms of hemiplegia may appear, and CT of the head may be used for differential diagnosis.

    46. ​​Subarachnoid hemorrhage: The cause may be cerebrovascular malformations, aneurysms, etc., which can be seen in patients of all ages, especially middle-aged and young people. Sensation disorders in the body, etc., physical examination may have meningeal irritation, and head CT can confirm the diagnosis after the onset.

    47. Cerebral vasospasm: Most patients have transient unilateral limb disorder, which can recover on their own within a few hours. Cerebrovascular examination can further confirm.

    48. Transient ischemic attack: There may also be a transient disturbance of consciousness at the onset of the disease, which can usually be cleared after a few minutes. CT of the head indicates cerebral hemorrhage, so it can be ruled out.

    49. Primary epilepsy: It can occur in patients of any age, with repeated convulsions, and may be accompanied by foaming at the mouth, urinary incontinence, unconsciousness, and varying duration. Head CT or other biochemical examinations can not find the cause Causes of epilepsy.

    50. Acute epilepsy: a history of epilepsy, convulsions, foaming at the mouth, incontinence and other symptoms, which can be distinguished by head CT and EEG.

    51. Cerebral aneurysm rupture: the clinical manifestations are nausea, vomiting, confusion, limb dysfunction, positive pathological signs can be seen, and bleeding lesions can be seen on head imaging.

    52. Intracranial space occupying: Intracranial space occupying such as brain tumors and other hemorrhages can also cause unconsciousness, which is continuously aggravated, and headaches continue to aggravate. Head CT can assist diagnosis.

    53. Brain tumor: It is common in middle-aged and elderly patients. The clinical manifestations are progressive headache, nausea, vomiting, hemiplegia, aphasia and other symptoms. Head CT or head MRI can reveal brain space, and some patients require enhanced scanning. Confirm the diagnosis.

    54. Hypoglycemic coma: Most patients have a history of diabetes, insufficient food, infection, diarrhea, etc., and may have chest tightness, sweating, and heart palpitations. In severe cases, coma can cause death. Blood glucose monitoring can help diagnosis.

    55. Diabetic ketoacidosis: a history of diabetes, typically manifested as a marked increase in diabetic symptoms, most patients can have a ketone odor similar to rotten apples in their breath, and there are large differences in mental changes among individuals, such as headache, dizziness, and irritability , Lethargy, coma, etc. Blood sugar is more than 16.65mmol/L, blood and urine ketone bodies are positive or strongly positive.

    56. Diabetic hyperosmolar coma: There are many history of diabetes, polydipsia, polyuria and other symptoms, blood sugar often rises to 30mol/l, head CT examination and blood glucose measurement have differential diagnosis value

    57. Chronic pharyngitis: Chronic pharyngitis, usually due to decreased body resistance, repeated inflammation caused by various bacterial or viral infections, clinical manifestations of sore throat, dysphagia, sometimes fever, and oral inspection Pharyngeal hyperemia, lymphatic follicles, enlarged tonsils, etc.

    58. Tonsillitis: There may be discomfort such as swollen tonsils, pain and other discomforts. In severe cases, fever may be found. Blood examination and analysis can show elevated white blood cells. This patient cannot be ruled out.

    59. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a history of long-term attacks, clinical manifestations of cough, sputum, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Physical examination: rough breathing sounds in both lungs, and wet rales can be heard in both lungs. Chest CT shows increased lung transparency

    60. Pulmonary embolism: There are chest pain, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. It is feasible to draw blood to check D-dimer and lung CT to identify.

    61. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: The clinical manifestations are sudden dyspnea and distress, hypoxemia, signs of both lungs can be heard and obvious wet rales, and pulmonary edema can be seen on chest imaging.

    62. Bronchial asthma: Most have a history of bronchial asthma attacks, more common in young patients, a large amount of wheezing in both lungs, and coughing of white foamy mucus sputum. The application of bronchodilators or glucocorticoids can relieve breathing difficulties.

    63. Cough variant asthma: The patient is characterized by irritating cough, which is easily induced by dust, oil fume, cold air, etc., and often has a history of family or personal allergic diseases. It is ineffective to antibiotic treatment. A positive bronchial provocation test can be identified. This case has a history of symptoms not support.

    64. Cardiac Asthma: Most patients have a history of hypertension and heart disease, cannot lie supine at the time of attack, and fine moist rales can be heard in both lungs.

    65. Acute bronchitis: acute onset, short medical history usually several days or weeks, clinical manifestations of cough, sputum, and fever, but generally no breathing difficulties. Physical examination: dry and wet rales or thick breath sounds can be heard in the lungs. The auxiliary examination may have thickened or normal lung texture. Anti-inflammatory and symptomatic treatment improved.

    66. Lung cancer: There are also cough, sputum, sometimes bloodshot in the sputum, lung cancer can be accompanied by obstructive pneumonia, inflammation subsided after antibiotic treatment, tumor shadows become more obvious, or hilar lymph nodes can be seen swelling, and sometimes lung failure Zhang, chest CT can help diagnosis.

    67. Pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor: The patient generally has no obvious discomfort, which can be confirmed by chest CT and biopsy.

    68. Hilar lymph node tuberculosis: It is more common in children and young people, with fever, night sweats and other symptoms of tuberculosis poisoning. Tuberculin test is often positive, and anti-tuberculosis treatment is effective.

    69. Mediastinal lymphoma: It is similar to central lung cancer, often bilateral, and may have systemic symptoms such as fever, but the symptoms of bronchial irritation are not obvious, and the examination of sputum exfoliated cells is negative.

    70. Lung abscess: acute onset, severe symptoms of poisoning, often chills, high fever, coughing, coughing a lot of pussy sputum, lung X-rays show uniform large patches of inflammatory shadows, and the cavity is often deep and flat. Routine blood examination can reveal inflammation. Anti-inflammatory treatment is effective.

    71. Bronchiectasis: The patient has the characteristics of recurrent cough and sputum, often repeated hemoptysis, coughing up a lot of pus and blood sputum when co-infected, physical examination of the lungs can be fixed wet rales, chest radiographs can show lung texture disorder or curly hair-like changes, CT Achievable changes in bronchiectasis.

    72. Pulmonary tuberculosis: Pulmonary tuberculosis usually has symptoms of systemic poisoning, such as low afternoon fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, insomnia, heart palpitations, chest X-ray shows that the lesions are mostly on the lung tip or above and below the collarbone, with uneven density, slow dissipation, and Formation of cavities or dissemination in the lungs, sputum examination and PPD test can be positive, chest X-ray and CT can help diagnosis.

    73. Tumorous pleural effusion: generally seen in older age, long-term smoking, cough, sputum expectoration, weight loss and discomfort, further check chest X-ray and chest CT, ESR, pleural effusion routine, biochemistry, cancer cells and so on.

    74. Tuberculous pleurisy: usually low-grade fever in the afternoon, night sweats, cough, sputum and other discomforts, cough, chest pain, and dyspnea progressively worsen. Physical examination: weak breathing sound in the affected lung. Pleural effusion is exudate, ADA>45ng/ml, combined with PPD test pleural effusion examination can make a clear diagnosis.

    75. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: There is usually a clear history of exposure to nitric oxide, and the clinical manifestations vary according to the severity of the poisoning. Mild symptoms may include headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Moderate: Excitement, dyskinesia, vision loss, confusion or coma. Severe: convulsions, deep coma, hypotension, arrhythmia and respiratory failure. Physical examination: The skin and mucous membranes may appear cherry red or cyanosis. A qualitative positive blood carboxyhemoglobin test can help confirm the diagnosis.

    76. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: a history of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides, clinical manifestations of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, profuse sweating, reduced pupils, slowed heart rate, and decreased blood cholinesterase.

    77. Herbicide (paraquat) poisoning: Most patients have a history of taking related drugs, and the early clinical symptoms are mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. There may be difficulty breathing in the late stage. Relevant medical history and blood tests can be identified.

    78. Anticoagulant rodent poisoning: It is manifested by extensive bleeding, prolonged coagulation time and prothrombin time, check four coagulation items to help identification.

    79. Central nervous system excitatory rodenticide poisoning: manifested by convulsions, coma, convulsions, and myocardial damage on the ECG.

    80. Acute alcoholism: There is a clear history of drinking, and the clinical manifestations vary with the amount of alcohol consumed. Mild poisoning can be manifested as excitement, ataxia, nausea and vomiting, severe poisoning can be manifested as coma, and even unstable vital signs. Death due to respiratory and circulatory failure. Physical examination: changes in consciousness, changes in pupils and alcohol smell can be found.

    81. Food poisoning: Clinical manifestations include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, chills and fever, etc. The blood analysis of white blood cells can increase, electrolyte disturbance, and stool culture can show pathogenic strains.

    82. Acute sedative and hypnotic poisoning: a clear history of drug exposure, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, blood pressure drop and other clinical manifestations, physical examination: miosis. Sedatives can be detected in gastric juice and urine.

    83. Other drug poisoning: There is a history of obvious drug exposure, the clinical manifestations are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and abnormal consciousness. The physical signs may be normal, and the clinical biochemical and blood analysis may be mildly abnormal.

    84. Lead poisoning: It can be manifested by anemia and recurrent abdominal pain at the same time. Blood and urine lead are elevated, and basophilic stippling red blood cells can be seen in the peripheral blood. The treatment of lead is effective.

    85. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: The patient may have palpitations, chest pain, exertional dyspnea, the heart may be slightly enlarged, and there may be murmurs. The heart color Doppler ultrasound can be diagnosed.

    86. Dilated cardiomyopathy: The main clinical manifestations of patients with congestive heart failure and arrhythmia are usually large, and color Doppler ultrasound: the chambers of the heart are enlarged, and the left ventricle is enlarged early and markedly, and the ventricular wall has changed significantly. Thin, movement is significantly weakened, and myocardial contractility decreases.

    87. Cor Pulmonale: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients with a long history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The main clinical manifestations are congestive heart failure, including: systemic edema, anorexia, physical examination: jugular vein filling or distension , Edema, color Doppler ultrasound: pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary artery widening, right ventricle, right atrium enlargement further support the diagnosis.

    88. Hypertensive heart disease: Most patients have a history of hypertension, and the heart circle expands to the lower left. When heart failure occurs, there may be clinical manifestations of acute pulmonary edema such as coughing pink foamy sputum. Electrocardiogram and heart color Doppler ultrasound are helpful for diagnosis. Pneumonia: The patient may cough, expectorate, dyspnea, chest pain, physical examination: dyspnea, dry and wet rales can be reached, and the chest can be diagnosed by the influence of chest examination, such as chest CT.

    89. Acute myocardial infarction: It mostly occurs in middle-aged and elderly patients with coronary heart disease who have recurrent angina pectoris. Chest pain is long, usually more than half an hour, and the pain is severe. The administration of nitroglycerin and other drugs has no relief. The diagnosis is confirmed by angiography.

    90. Angina pectoris: It mostly occurs in middle-aged and elderly patients with basic diseases such as long-term hypertension and diabetes. It is mostly induced by fatigue and emotional agitation. Paroxysmal pain on the posterior side of the sternum or precordial area, usually in the form of soreness and compression Pain is the main cause, and the duration is generally no more than half an hour. Rest or taking nitroglycerin is effective. At the onset, myocardial ischemia can generally be found.

    91. Acute coronary syndrome: clinical manifestations include chest tightness, chest pain, forearm radiating pain, abnormal ST-T segment on ECG, and coronary angiography showing vascular stenosis or occlusion.

    92. Coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients with diabetes and hypertension for many years. Patients may have repeated chest tightness and chest pain. Generally, they have no specific signs. Electrocardiogram, ECG stress test, coronary angiography or 64-slice spiral CT can be diagnosed .

    93. Aortic dissection: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients with basic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. The onset is sudden, and the clinical manifestations may show continuous chest pain, abdominal pain and release to the back and back, accompanied by profuse sweating. Physical examination revealed that blood pressure was significantly increased or decreased, bilateral blood pressure was asymmetric, and heart rate could be increased. Auxiliary examination: enhanced chest CT can further clarify.

    94. Unstable angina pectoris: It is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. It may have basic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, and may recur. The clinical manifestations are paroxysmal chest pain, chest tightness, and squeezing, which lasts for several minutes, generally not more than half It can relieve itself when taking nitroglycerin or resting after hours. An electrocardiogram can reveal myocardial ischemia, and coronary angiography can confirm the diagnosis.

    95. Cardiac insufficiency: The trigger is often infection. The clinical manifestations include varying degrees of dyspnea, lower extremity edema, loss of appetite, audible moist rales in the lungs, and decreased cardiac color Doppler ultrasound ejection fraction.

    96. Heart failure: The clinical manifestations are shortness of breath, dyspnea after exercise, edema of both lower extremities, loss of appetite, etc. Physical examination: abnormal jugular vein filling, obvious wet rales at the bottom of both lungs, and edema of both lower extremities. Cardiac color Doppler ultrasound showed decreased cardiac ejection fraction.

    97. Myocardial infarction: Most patients have a history of hypertension, sudden chest pain, compressive chest tightness and chest pain, which can be confirmed by electrocardiogram.

    98. Arrhythmia: The patient has palpitations, which can be further clarified by electrocardiogram.

    99. Cardiogenic syncope: Transient insufficiency of blood supply to the brain may cause transient unconsciousness due to transient arrhythmia, chest pain, etc. The clinical manifestations are chest pain, chest tightness, dyspnea, etc. Physical examination: there may be arrhythmia, Auxiliary examination can find ECG arrhythmia or myocardial ischemia, injury or necrosis.

    100. Vasovagal syncope: It is often mediated by emotion or upright position, with typical prodromal symptoms and associated emergencies.

    101. Pericardial effusion: There may be distended jugular vein, hepatomegaly, and lower extremity edema. According to the medical history, echocardiography can identify it.

    102. Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: Generally, the onset is rapid, chest tightness and shortness of breath are obvious, it is difficult to rest on the supine position, difficulty in breathing when sitting up and oxygen inhalation is relieved, and there is a history of heart disease in the past. According to the chest radiograph, heart B-ultrasound can be identified.

    103. Infective endocarditis: There is a history of basic heart disease. When fever or new heart murmurs appear, this disease should be highly suspected. A cardiac color Doppler ultrasound can find neoplasms, and positive blood cultures can help distinguish.

    104. Acute renal insufficiency: Renal function caused by various reasons suddenly declines in a short period of time (a few hours to a few weeks) and there is a syndrome of nitrogen waste retention and reduced urine output. The clinical manifestations can be divided into initial stage and maintenance stage: oliguria, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, high blood pressure, restlessness, coma, etc. Recovery period: urine output increases to 3000-5000ml per day.

    105. Chronic renal failure: various causes, including chronic kidney structure and dysfunction caused by nephritis, pyelonephritis, and lupus nephropathy, with a medical history of more than 3 months. The clinical manifestations are: initial fatigue, backache, increased nocturia, loss of appetite, and then nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, anemia, insomnia, inattention, and significant decrease in urine output. The auxiliary examination may have renal function. Different degrees of decline, anemia, morphological changes in both kidneys, etc.

    106. Malaria: It is caused by Plasmodium infection. The clinical manifestations are high fever, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly. Physical examination: anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, auxiliary examination can be positive for Plasmodium smears and Plasmodium antibodies.

    107. Typhoid fever: caused by typhoid bacillus infection, clinical manifestations of intermittent high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, physical examination: no significant increase in pulse rhythm during fever, typhoid macula, hepatosplenomegaly can be found on the skin, and the auxiliary examination can find obesity Da's reaction is positive.

    108. Rabies: Most patients have a history of being bitten by sick animals. Symptoms are mostly laryngeal muscle tension and twitching, with typical symptoms such as fear of wind and water.

    109. Tetanus infection: Most patients have a history of trauma, swelling of masseter muscles, mouth opening and dysphagia, and typical symptoms such as "wittery smile" and "angular arch reflex".

    110. Acute leukemia: It is manifested by anemia, bleeding, and infection. The blood picture can be reduced in three lines. The bone marrow examination reveals that the proportion of blasts is greater than 20%.

    111. Aplastic anemia: It is also manifested by anemia, bleeding, and infection. The blood picture is reduced in three lines. The bone marrow examination reveals that hematopoietic cells are reduced and non-hematopoietic cells are increased.

    From: AB Longing for Shenying> "45. Routines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Diseases"

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