In 2018, the National Cancer Center released a set of national cancer statistics: As of August 2017, the National Cancer Registry collected a total of 449 cancer registration data submitted by 449 registries in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country. . Among them, the estimated new cases of malignant tumors nationwide in 2014 were 3.804 million, including 2.114 million males and 1.690 million females. On average, more than 10,000 people were diagnosed with cancer every day, and 7 people were diagnosed with cancer every minute.
1. How did cancer get?
First, there are ten carcinogenic risk factors listed by the World Health Organization:
1. Tobacco use, including cigarettes and smokeless tobacco;
2. Overweight or obese;
3. Unhealthy diet, low intake of fruits and vegetables;
4. Lack of physical activity;
6. Sexually transmitted human papillomavirus infection;
7. Acquired hepatitis or other carcinogenic infections;
8. Ionization and ultraviolet radiation;
9. Urban air pollution;
10. Indoor smoke from household solid fuels.
2. How to actively prevent cancer?
1. Stay away from bad habits such as smoking, staying up late, sitting for a long time
Many tumors are "induced" by bad habits.
For example, eating too much high-fat diet, eating meat, and not eating vegetables will easily induce more and more bowel cancer patients; the increase in smokers will lead to many innocent "second-hand smoke" lung cancer patients.
Robert Sreiber, professor of pathology and immunology at the University of Washington School of Medicine in the United States, found that if some bad habits are maintained for 10 years, then you will become a "cancer candidate", because during these 10 years, cancer cells not only produce, but also It will develop and grow, eventually conquer cities and land, invading other organs of the body. These habits include: eating less fruits and vegetables, always holding back bowel movements, staying up late, sitting still, not using condoms, and frequent second-hand smoke.
Therefore, you should develop regular living habits and maintain a good rhythm of life. Sleep when you should go to bed, eat when you should eat, have a certain time every day to exercise, and don't smoke or drink.
2. Exercise at any time, and treat physical exercise as the same as eating and working. The way of exercise varies from person to person. Some people like to walk and some people like to swim. Just moving is better than not moving. Moreover, there is no need to exercise at a specific occasion or time. Walking 4 hours a week compared with walking less than 1 hour a week, the cardiovascular morbidity rate was reduced by 69%, and the mortality rate was reduced by 73%.
3. Keep a happy mood, please laugh often!
Pleasant mood is the most important for health and immunity. Losing your temper, sulking, holding fire, etc., will increase the adrenaline in the body, and then reduce the body's various functions.
3. The most neglected cancer signals for women and men
(1) The most neglected cancer signals for women
1. Unexplained weight loss.
If you do not go on a diet or increase the amount of exercise, you should see a doctor if you lose more than 4.5 kg in one month. Hyperthyroidism is a common disease in women and can cause weight loss, but be aware that weight loss may also be caused by cancer.
Bloating is common in women, and many people disagree, but it may be a symptom of ovarian cancer. In addition, there are problems such as lower abdomen or pelvic pain, fullness after eating, frequent urination, and urgency. If the abdominal distension occurs every day and does not relieve for several weeks, you should go to the hospital for examination.
3. Breast changes.
If the breasts become red and the skin thickens, it may indicate a rare but rapidly growing breast cancer --- inflammatory breast cancer. If the rash on the breast does not go away for a few weeks, you should seek medical attention. If the nipples are inverted or discharged, they must also be checked.
4. Non-menstrual bleeding or other abnormal bleeding.
If the menstruation is very regular and there is non-menstrual bleeding, be sure to check. Vaginal bleeding after menopause needs more attention, because it may be a symptom of endometrial cancer.
As they age, women often complain about body pain and pain, some are very specific, some are indescribable. Those pains that last longer and are difficult to describe require more vigilance.
Many pregnant women remember that when they gain weight, they often have symptoms of indigestion, so it is easy to ignore this problem. Persistent indigestion may be a sign of cancer of the esophagus, throat, or stomach, so it should not be taken lightly.
In addition to the above symptoms, skin changes, difficulty swallowing, blood in urine and feces, blood in sputum, oral leukoplakia, swollen lymph nodes, fever, extreme fatigue, persistent cough, etc., may also be early symptoms of cancer, if the duration is long In a few weeks, you should see a doctor.
(2) Cancer signals that men tend to ignore
Men are usually carefree and less sensitive to cancer signals. Dr. Leonard Lechtonfield, deputy chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, pointed out that in order to detect cancer early, men must pay attention to the following symptoms.
1. Sudden weight loss
Without dieting or increasing exercise, if you lose more than 10% of your weight within 3 to 6 months, you should see a doctor.
2. Testicular changes
The common incidence of testicular cancer is between 20 and 39 years old. Men are advised to check their testicles once a month. It is worth noting whether the testicles are enlarged or reduced. If there is swelling, lumps or feeling heavy, you should seek medical attention as soon as possible.
3. Lymph node changes
If you find enlarged or lumped lymph nodes in your armpit or neck, you must go to the hospital.
Fever of unknown cause may indicate cancer, but it may also be caused by other minor illnesses. Most cancers will have a fever at some stage, usually when the cancer has spread from the original position to other parts of the body. In addition, some blood diseases such as leukemia or lymphoma can also cause fever.
5. Abdominal pain and depression
If abdominal pain is accompanied by depression, it is necessary to check, it is most likely a symptom of pancreatic cancer. Other symptoms of this disease include jaundice, gray stools, dark urine, and sometimes itching all over the body.
6. Skin changes
Many people know that mole changes may be a sign of skin cancer, but changes in pigmentation, sudden subcutaneous bleeding or extensive keratinization must also be noted.
Fatigue is another obscure indicator of cancer, which often occurs in the early stages of leukemia, rectal cancer or gastric cancer. If you feel extremely tired and do not get better after resting, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.
8. Oral changes
If you smoke or chew tobacco, pay special attention to the small white spots on your mouth or tongue. It may be mucosal leukoplakia, which has a high chance of developing into oral cancer.
9. Constant cough
If you cough for more than three or four weeks, or if the cough pattern has changed, you should see a doctor. It may be a sign of cancer, it may be chronic bronchitis or acid reflux.
10. Problems with urination
Older men are prone to problems with the urinary system. Urgency, frequent urination, incontinence while laughing or coughing can all be caused by prostate hyperplasia. It also has the risk of cancer.
11. Breast lumps
Few men pay attention to their breasts, but they do need to be careful. If you find breast lumps, sunken or wrinkled skin, inverted nipples, redness or keratinization of the nipples or breast skin, and pus secretion from the nipples, you must consult a doctor promptly.
12. Abnormal bleeding
If you have blood in your urine or sputum, you must not take it lightly. Blood in the stool is not necessarily caused by hemorrhoids, but may be caused by rectal cancer.
13. Difficulty swallowing
This is usually a symptom of gastrointestinal cancer such as esophageal cancer.
As they age, men often complain of pain. Most pain has nothing to do with cancer, and some are precursors of cancer.
When many elderly people have severe indigestion, they often mistakenly believe that they have a heart attack. Persistent indigestion may be a manifestation of tumors in the esophagus, throat, or stomach.