2020年10月16日星期五

what does a hemorrhoids look like,Prevention and treatment of anorectal diseases

    Anorectal diseases are one of the most common high-incidence diseases in the human body. The "hemorrhoids" in the common saying "ten people and nine hemorrhoids" refers to anorectal diseases in general. As the exit of the digestive tract, the anorectum is an organ that plays an important role in human organs and is easily damaged due to various factors. Once the anorectal function is damaged, it will bring people a lot of inconvenience and great pain. Therefore, we must pay full attention to anorectal diseases, master some self-preventive health care knowledge of anorectal diseases, effectively reduce the incidence of anorectal diseases, or use our own health care knowledge when anorectal diseases occur, prevent the symptoms from exacerbating, and treat them in time, so as to maximize Reduce pain and improve the quality of life.

    Common anorectal diseases include internal hemorrhoids, external hemorrhoids, mixed hemorrhoids, anal fissures, perianal abscesses, anal fistulas, constipation, anorectitis, etc. The incidence of hemorrhoids is the highest, accounting for about 70% of the entire anorectal diseases, so hemorrhoids Knowledge of preventive health care is particularly important. With the continuous deepening of basic theoretical research, the understanding of hemorrhoids is also constantly improving. In recent years, the anorectal community has basically reached a consensus that "hemorrhoids" are the product of pathological hypertrophy of normal anal pad tissue in the human body. In other words, "hemorrhoids" are common to everyone, only when it suffers from pain and bleeding. Symptoms such as hemorrhoids, prolapse, swelling, etc. can only be called "hemorrhoids" and need to be dealt with. Moreover, the treatment concept has gradually evolved from the early years of admiring surgery to the current focus on treating symptoms and improving symptoms. When necessary, carefully choose the principle of surgery. . From these changes, it is not difficult to see that the preventive health care and conservative treatment of anorectal diseases play an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of anorectal diseases.

    So how to effectively prevent the occurrence of common anorectal diseases?

    Nowadays, with advanced social information, people can easily obtain too much health care knowledge from various channels, and even many people will summarize some personalized health care knowledge that is only suitable for themselves and share them with everyone. This will make people really need something. Some professional preventive and health care knowledge cannot be selected or even used incorrectly to delay the disease. Combining many years of clinical experience, I think the prevention and health care of common anorectal diseases can be relatively simply started from the following aspects:

    First of all, we must establish good eating habits and bowel habits. Many anorectal diseases, especially hemorrhoids, are caused by poor bowel habits, long-term constipation or uncomfortable stool removal, and often struggle with the anus, or frequent diarrhea or excessive stools, which may cause mechanical damage to the anus and cause hemorrhoids and anal fissures. ; Frequent eating of some spicy and fatty products leads to accumulation of damp and heat in the body, prone to perianal abscess, anal anal inflammation, anal sinusitis and other diseases. Good eating habits and good bowel habits can effectively prevent these diseases from occurring. Good bowel habits must be established on the basis of good eating and living habits. While keeping a scientific and reasonable diet structure as much as possible, we should eat more celery, leeks and other high-fiber foods and drink plenty of water when necessary. Foods that are good for laxative bowel movements, such as honey, bananas, sesame seeds, etc., can also be matched with some coarse grains such as corn, yam, etc., which can effectively prevent constipation. If the dietary conditioning effect is not ideal, you can also use some bowel bowels. Stool medicine to keep the stool smooth. Good living habits also include avoiding sedentary sitting, standing for a long time, squatting for a long time, and avoiding heavy physical labor for a long time. This can also effectively prevent the occurrence of symptoms such as hemorrhoids, swelling, and bleeding. In addition, the disease is imported from the mouth, strict dietary hygiene, prevention and treatment of diarrhea, can also effectively reduce the incidence of anal fissure, thrombotic hemorrhoids, anal eczema and other diseases.

    Secondly, it is necessary to keep the area around the anus clean and hygienic. Many anorectal diseases are related to the cleansing and hygiene of the anus. There will be many pathogenic bacteria hidden in the perianal skin and skin folds of the anal canal after defecation. If it is not cleaned in time, it will cause infection and secondary anal fissure and perianal. Abscess, anal sinusitis, anal angitis, anal eczema and other diseases. We'd better develop the habit of defecation regularly, and clean it after defecation. If you can take a bath with warm water every day, massage the anus with your fingers, promote blood circulation around the anus, and do some levator anus exercises appropriately, which can greatly reduce Occurrence of diseases such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and anal fistula.

    Another very important point is that when some of our anorectal diseases occur and some mild symptoms appear, we must promptly go to a specialist for diagnosis and treatment, make a correct diagnosis, and take effective measures in time to prevent the disease from further aggravating or even delaying the disease. Most anorectal diseases generally have an onset process. The initial symptoms such as thrombotic external hemorrhoids and anal fissures are not serious. If the correct treatment measures are taken in time, most patients can be free from the pain of surgery. There are also some patients with anorectal malignant tumors. In the early stage, they often have only mild symptoms such as anal swelling and feeling of bowel movement. At this time, digital anus examination, especially anorectal specialist's digital anus examination, is one of the most effective methods for early detection of rectal cancer, but many Patients only go to the hospital until symptoms such as pus, blood, and stools appear. The result is often that the cancer is in the terminal stage. In addition, the anorectal department is more specialized than other specialties. Many patients often regard all perianal diseases as hemorrhoids, which is easy to ignore. In fact, there are more than a dozen common diseases around the anus besides hemorrhoids, and their pathogenic mechanisms and treatment methods are quite different, so only specialists can be accurate Only when the correct diagnosis is made in time can the disease be treated correctly.

    As the saying goes, "ten people and nine hemorrhoids", it means profoundly indicating the multiple and commonness of anorectal diseases, and it also reflects the difficulty and complexity of anorectal diseases. The special route of administration and traditional and professional treatment methods also bring people mystery and puzzlement. Because of the special diseased part, the patient often feels pain but it is difficult to tell. Due to the general lack of knowledge of anorectal diseases by patients, delays in their illness or random infusion of the disease occur, thus losing the best treatment opportunity, and some have serious consequences that affect the physiological functions of the anus. In view of this, we specially hold this event, hoping to bring some help to the majority of patients and friends to relieve their illness as soon as possible.

    What disease should be diagnosed and treated in the anorectal department

    The anorectal department is generally called the hemorrhoid and fistula department in Chinese hospitals, so which diseases should be diagnosed and treated in the anorectal department, or what range of diseases are the anorectal diseases? Anorectal diseases refer to all diseases that occur in the anus, rectum, colon and even the ileocecal area, including internal hemorrhoids, external hemorrhoids, mixed hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anal papillary hypertrophy, anal fistula, anal sinusitis, anal papilla Inflammation, rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, anal pruritus, anal condyloma, various congenital anorectal malformations, proctitis, ulcerative colitis, colonic Crohn's disease, amoebic colitis, allergic enteritis, Intestinal polyps, colonic hemangioma, lipoma, rectal cancer, anal cancer, and colonic dysfunction caused by habitual constipation, irritable colon syndrome, etc. are all diagnosed and treated diseases in the anorectal department.

    What are the symptoms of anorectal disease

    In clinical practice, many patients don't understand the symptoms of anorectal diseases. After getting sick, they don't know which department to register when they go to the hospital. As a result, they delay treatment and increase their costs. Common symptoms of anorectal diseases include pain in the anus, blood in the stool, prolapsed anus mass, protruding lumps in the anus, foreign body sensation in the anus and rectum, anal swelling, falling, anal itching, increased secretion, diarrhea, constipation, pus and mucus , Difficulty defecation, changes in stool appearance, fever and cold, abdominal distension, anemia, weight loss. Many symptoms and other diseases coexist, requiring doctors to inquire carefully in the clinic, observe carefully, and distinguish carefully.

    What is hemorrhoids? What harm does hemorrhoids cause to the human body?

    The venous mass formed by the expansion of varicose veins in the mucosa of the lower rectum, anal canal, or anal margin is called hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are a frequently-occurring common disease in clinical practice. As the saying goes, "ten people have nine hemorrhoids". The main symptoms of hemorrhoids are blood in the stool, pain, prolapse, increased local secretions, and difficulty defecation.

    The main symptoms of hemorrhoids are blood in the stool and prolapse. Repeated bleeding during stool can cause a large amount of iron to be lost in the body and cause iron deficiency anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia caused by hemorrhoids may have no symptoms or mild symptoms in the early stage. When anemia is severe or progresses quickly, symptoms such as paleness, fatigue, loss of appetite, palpitations, edema, rapid heart rhythm, and shortness of breath after physical activity may appear . Some patients may have neurological symptoms such as irritability, excitement, irritability, etc. Another major symptom of hemorrhoids is internal hemorrhoids prolapse. When the prolapse of hemorrhoids cannot be returned, it is called incarcerated hemorrhoids. Pathological changes such as necrosis and infection will occur after prolonged incarceration. In short, hemorrhoids have many harms to the human body. As long as they can be treated early and properly handled, the above serious situations can be avoided.

    What is anal fissure? What food should patients with anal fissure eat?

    Anal fissure is a common disease in which the skin of the anal canal below the tooth line breaks to form a fusiform split or ulcer. It is more common in young adults, but it can also occur in children, and less in the elderly. Anal fissures often occur in the posterior or anterior median position of the anus, mostly in the posterior part of the anus, and less on both sides. This disease is characterized by spasm of the anal sphincter, pain in the anus or blood in the stool during defecation, which is susceptible to irritation and infection, so that the crack will last for a long time.

    Patients with anal fissure should eat more fruits and vegetables containing fiber and vitamins to prevent constipation, such as apples, peaches, apricots, pears, bananas, celery, spinach, etc. In addition, sesame, honey, vegetable oil, and walnuts can also moisturize the intestines. Patients with anal fissure should avoid or eat less stimulating diet, such as white wine, rice wine, pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, etc. These foods can cause constipation, and make the anorectal hyperemia obvious, induce or aggravate anal fissure.

    What is anal fistula? Can anal fistula become cancer?

    Anal fistula refers to the fistula connected to the anal canal or rectum. Anal fistula is a sequelae formed after the rupture of an abscess around the anorectal. Anal fistula can turn into cancer. The number of cases of anal fistula combined with anorectal cancer has been increasing in recent years. It is generally believed that canceration is related to chronic long-term stimulation. Induration, increased secretions and local pain are often precursors of canceration. The cancer rate of patients over 10 years is relatively high and should be taken seriously. Therefore, active treatment of anal fistula can effectively prevent the occurrence of rectal cancer.

    What is rectal prolapse?

    Some people have intestinal prolapse in the anus during defecation or squatting, and sometimes they need to be back with their hands after standing or defecation. This pathological phenomenon is commonly known as "prolapse". The disease can occur at any age, but children are mostly rectal mucosal prolapse; males 20-40 years old and women over 50 years old are mostly full-thickness rectal prolapse. There are more men than women with this disease.

    What are rectal polyps?

    Patients often have pus, blood or mucus during defecation. After defecation, a pedicled purple ball can be seen protruding out of the anus, or a benign mass in the intestine is found during colonoscopy, which is called rectal polyp. Polyps are redundant masses on human tissues, accounting for about 50-70% of benign tumors of the digestive tract.

    What is an anorectal abscess? What are its characteristics?

    Anorectal abscess refers to acute and chronic purulent infection of the soft tissues around the anus. The characteristics are: ①Mostly in young adults aged 20-40, more men than women; ②Emergency onset, swelling of the anus, unbearable pain; ③The formation of anal abscess is easy to spread to the surrounding soft tissue spaces and form new abscesses; ④Abscess formation It can rupture naturally and form anal fistula.

    What are the main symptoms of anorectal abscess?

    Small lumps or lumps found around the anus, followed by local severe pain, redness, fever, discomfort, restlessness, tenesmus, dry stool, poor urination and other symptoms of rectal irritation, followed by increased body temperature and loss of appetite , Chills, fatigue and other systemic symptoms.

    Why should deep perianal abscesses be treated with early surgery? Otherwise, what is the harm?

    Once a deep abscess is formed, the internal pressure gradually increases, and the infection can spread to surrounding tissues, penetrate the levator ani muscle and enter the pelvic cavity to form peritonitis, or erode, ulcerate, and puncture adjacent tissues and organs such as rectum, bladder, vagina, and urethra , Forming many types of complicated fistulas. Therefore, if the early incision is not performed after the abscess is formed, it will not only increase the invisible pain, but also cause serious harm to the human body.

    What are the skin diseases around the anus?

    There are many perianal skin diseases, mainly including anal eczema, anal itching, anal neurodermatitis, perianal contact dermatitis, perianal skin tuberculosis, perianal skin tinea, perianal condyloma acuminatum, perianal hidradenitis and so on.

    What is rectal cancer? How is its incidence?

    Rectal cancer is a malignant mass that grows above the dentate line to the junction of the rectum and sigmoid colon. The surface of the mass is uneven and the texture is hard. It occurs from the mucosa and submucosa. It grows quickly and is easy to metastasize. It is a relatively common malignant tumor of the intestine.

    Rectal cancer is mostly adenocarcinoma, and its incidence is high, accounting for about 15% of systemic malignancies. Men are second only to gastric cancer, women are second only to uterine cancer, and second only to gastric cancer among gastrointestinal malignancies. 75-80% of malignant tumors in the intestine occur in the anal canal, rectum, and the junction of the rectum and sigmoid colon. About 80-90% of rectal cancers occur in the lower 2/3 of the rectum (within 10cm from the anal edge). Over 40 years old.

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