1. Hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and anal fistulas: Patients all have complaints of blood in the stool, some accompanied by mucus, blood in the stool or increased stool, but it is not difficult to distinguish as long as the digital rectal examination is performed.
2. Non-specific proctitis: Manifestations of blood in the stool, increased stool frequency, and pus-like discharge mixed in the stool. Proctoscope showed mucosal hyperemia, edema, purulent discharge, and no raised mass.
3. Rectal polyps: single or multiple in the clinic, do not cause difficulty in defecation and constipation, soft, round, movable masses can be felt on digital examination, and some can become cancerous, and biopsy is required.
4. Radiation proctitis: There are usually history of radiotherapy for cervical cancer and prostate cancer, mucus and blood in the stool, increased stool volume, bleeding and tenesmus. Proctoscope showed the characteristics of mucosal hyperemia, edema, erosion, ulcer, and easy bleeding.
5. Dysentery: Regardless of bacterial or amoebic dysentery, the main clinical manifestations are pus, bloody stools, frequent stools, and tenesmus, which are often confused with the symptoms of rectal cancer. Through digital rectal examination and rectal endoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, it is not difficult to distinguish from rectal cancer.