Colonic polyps are neoplasms that protrude from the epidermis of the colon mucosa to the cavity. Colon polyps mostly occur in the sigmoid colon and rectum. There are more men than women. The older the age, the higher the incidence. The cancer rate of colon polyps is related to the type, size and epithelial dysplasia of the polyps. Generally speaking, adenomatous polyps have a higher carcinogenesis rate, among which papillary adenomas have a carcinogenesis rate of 30% to 70%. The larger the adenoma, the higher the carcinogenesis rate. The diameter is greater than 2cm, and the carcinogenesis rate reaches 30% to 50%. The carcinogenesis rate of severe dysplasia is 27%, and it is estimated that the carcinogenesis time is 5-15 years.
Colon polyps basically have no obvious symptoms, but if symptoms such as blood in the stool, changes in stool habits, and abnormal stool shapes occur, they need to be diagnosed and treated in a regular hospital in time.
Hematochezia is the most common symptom in patients with colon polyps. However, many people mistake stool bleeding as a symptom of hemorrhoids, which has delayed the best treatment opportunity. Bleeding caused by hemorrhoids and colon polyps is fundamentally different.
Bleeding caused by hemorrhoids often manifests as bleeding after stool, which is bright red, while bleeding caused by colonic polyps is often mixed with stool, which is bright red or dark red, and is mostly caused by the surface of the polyp.
In addition, changes in bowel habits, such as changes in the time and frequency of bowel movements, and constipation or unexplained diarrhea, especially when constipation and diarrhea alternately appear repeatedly, or when abdominal pain occurs, should be more vigilant.
What needs to be reminded is that attention should be paid to abnormal stool shape. Normal stool should be cylindrical, but if the polyp is large and compresses the stool in the colon cavity, it will tend to become thinner or flattened when discharged, sometimes with blood stains. If the patient has the above three symptoms, you must not be careless and should go to a regular hospital in time.
Healthy adults over 50 years old should undergo a colonoscopy if possible. Those who have rectal (colon) bowel polyps, family history of colon cancer, and history of diarrhea, constipation, hematochezia, blood CEA, CA199, and positive fecal occult blood should be screened for colon lesions. Colonoscopy should be the first choice. No matter what kind of colon polyp, you should first take a biopsy under endoscopy and send it for pathological examination. Patients who cannot do colonoscopy or do not want to do colonoscopy can choose barium enema or CT virtual colonoscopy.