what does a hemorrhoids look like,Enjoy the joy of childbirth. Childbirth is the most important thing in life.


    Childbirth refers to the emergence of a new individual from the mother; specifically refers to the period and process of the fetus leaving the mother as a single individual. The whole process of delivery is divided into 3 stages, also called 3 stages of labor. The first stage of labor is the period of dilation of the uterine mouth. The second stage of labor, the fetus delivery period. The third stage of labor, the placental delivery stage, refers to the process from the delivery of the fetus to the discharge of the placenta. Recently, foreign studies have shown that the way of delivery of parturients is related to the zinc content in their diet in the later stages of pregnancy. The more zinc they consume each day, the greater the chance of natural childbirth. On the contrary, they can only use forceps or cesarean section.


    Preliminary preparation

    Daily life

    Personal hygiene: take a bath frequently, trim your nails, pay attention to safety, and not take a long hot bath.

    Sexual life: Sexual life is strictly prohibited before labor to prevent premature rupture of membranes and premature delivery.

    Exercise: It is forbidden to make big moves, such as chasing, crowding, climbing, etc.

    Going out: When you go out, you need someone to accompany you, do not go out alone for too long, and inform your family.

    Nutrition: Ensure nutrition, eat more milk, eggs, chicken soup. Get enough sleep and accumulate energy.

    Items: Check the admission equipment and properly arrange the equipment needed after delivery and return home. Place the items you and your child need in a prominent place when you leave the hospital.

    Daily training: further proficient in the auxiliary movements of childbirth and practice breathing techniques.

    Hospital items

    Grooming utensils: toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthwash cup; soap, facial cleanser; 3 face towels (to wipe the face, body and lower body); 2 square towels for scrubbing the breasts; pads under the chin for children to eat and drink 3 small square towels; 2 small washbasins, washbasins for washing the lower body, 1 washbasin for hot compress or breast cleaning; comb, mirror, hairpin.

    Clothing: 3 pairs of cotton underwear; breastfeeding bras, 2 waistcoats, breastfeeding pads; front button pajamas for breastfeeding; 3 pairs of underpants for spring and autumn seasons; 1 corset belt; 1 long thermal jacket for outside wear; slippers 1 pair; if it is cold, add 2 pairs of cotton socks.

    Hygiene: Maternity pads; special or lengthened sanitary napkins, postpartum sanitary napkins, facial tissues.

    Food utensils: cups, spoons, straws.

    Food: You can prepare some chocolates or biscuits to prepare for hunger and delivery.

    Recording supplies: audio and video equipment, even crying, are the most memorable.

    You must not forget what you bring to the hospital: ID card, medical insurance card, mother and child health handbook, relevant medical records, hospitalization deposit, etc.

    What do I need to prepare for production packages?

    Mom's supplies in the delivery package

    1. At least one pair of trousers and at least one pair of cotton socks. It is best to wear them the next day after production to keep warm;

    2. Clothes to wear when discharged from the hospital; the hat worn when discharged from the hospital can be used for the hat worn during surgery, windproof and not too hot;

    3. Toiletries (towels, dental sets, washbasins, combs), I started scrubbing as soon as I could get out of bed, and started brushing my teeth;

    4. handwashing fluid;

    5. Comfortable slippers;

    6. It is recommended to buy a bag of toilet seats once you use it, which is basically enough;

    7. Straw: Be sure to buy the one with the upper part that can be bent. You can only lie in bed for 24 hours after the operation. It is very convenient to use such a straw after drinking water;

    8. Facial tissue: You can sweat very much after childbirth, you can also prepare a few sweat-absorbing towels;

    9. It is recommended to prepare at most one pack of sanitary napkins after childbirth, and the one issued by the hospital should be enough

    10. Disposable underwear: It is recommended to prepare at least one pack. There are more postpartum lochia that can contaminate clothes, so it is more convenient to wear disposable underwear; hospitals can also sell them;

    11. Lunch boxes, be sure to prepare microwave ovens, it is recommended to prepare at least 2; water cup; washing spirit;

    12. Snacks and fruits can replenish body energy after postpartum exhaust; such as small cakes, pies, apples, peaches...

    13. Breast pump, the more the milk is sucked, the more the milk will be sucked out;

    14. Money (the deposit of cesarean section has a medical insurance of 3000, if there is no deposit 8000), medical insurance manual, birth service card, Beixinwo card, ID card, household registration book

    15. File bag: various documents will be sent to yourself and your baby, and they will not be lost when packed in a file bag;

    Baby's supplies in the delivery package

    1. Bathtub: No need to prepare toiletries, the hospital has them;

    2. Diapers: It will be issued in the hospital, it is enough for the basic hospitalization period, no need to prepare; it is recommended to bring a few gauze or cotton diapers, if the baby is allergic to diapers, you can use it;

    3. The baby wipes for ass, the Johnson & Johnson belt box, which is cleaner and can prevent moisture from evaporating;

    4. A small basin for washing butt, if the baby has a lot of poop, especially when the amount is large, it can be used to wash the baby's butt;

    5. Small clothes are sent to the hospital, so you don’t need to bring them;

    6. There is no need to bring milk powder. If there is not enough breast milk, the hospital will have special formula milk, and you can ask a nurse to help add it, but it seems that you will only add money.

    Food preparation

    Childbirth is a major event in women’s lives. If the mother prepares her family for food before she gives birth, it will bring you a lot of benefits during delivery and confinement, so give it a try. We recommend some good food for everyone today:

    Nourishing liver soup:

    Production: Take 7 red dates and wash them every day, use a knife to mark 7 straight lines on each red date to help the nutrients overflow, then soak in 280 ml of hot boiled water for more than 8 hours, then cover and steam for 1 hour Serve. After drinking the nourishing liver soup, the baby's skin is very good. Pregnant moms may wish to try it, especially for those who have a C-section. Because Yanggan Decoction can not only help mothers to eliminate the toxicity of anesthetics, but also reduce the pain of the incision.

    Regardless of natural delivery or cesarean section, you need to start drinking 10 days before delivery, drink 280 ml a day, both cold and hot, and drink it 2-3 times a day. You still need to drink for two weeks after giving birth, but you need to replace the boiling water with boiled rice wine that has completely evaporated the alcohol. Although Yanggan Decoction is good, it should not be drunk too early to avoid getting angry. Similarly, the number of red dates should not be too large, 7 is just right, and eating too much will get angry.

    Lotus Root and Scallop Pork Rib Soup

    Production: The scallops were soaked with 10 times the amount of water the night before until the second day, and the soaked water was reserved for later use; the lotus root was neither peeled nor sliced, leaving two knots, and cooked in whole knots; ribs After blanching, put all the ingredients in a pot, add 6 times the amount of water (including the water for soaking the scallops) and a little salt, boil on high heat, and simmer for two hours before eating.

    This soup can help improve physical fitness and increase productivity. A pregnant woman needs 10 grams of lotus root per kilogram of body weight, that is, a pregnant woman weighing 50 kilograms needs to take 500 grams of lotus root, and so on. It is best to choose a larger lotus root. The weight of the ribs is the same as that of the lotus root. The scallops are 1/10 of the lotus root, and generally 7 pieces are the average weight. It is best to use an earthen pot or earthenware pot to stew. When eating, be careful to eat all the lotus root, scallops, ribs and soup.

    Fish head soup

    Production: shred pork belly and shiitake mushrooms, and fry the fish head until half-cooked; put a little oil in the pot and heat, add pork belly, shredded shiitake mushrooms, and shredded ginger until fragrant; add Chinese cabbage, tofu, fish head and water, and cook Put in a small amount of salt after 2 hours and serve.

    This soup is very fragrant, so there is no need to add MSG at all. If you want to be full, you can also add vermicelli or noodles. It is best to use an earthen pot or a clay pot to cook. The calcium content in fish head is very rich. If it is eaten in turn with big bone soup and chicken bone soup, it can better help pregnant women increase their physical strength.

    Red Date Mutton Soup

    350 grams of high-quality lamb, 100 grams of red dates, 100 grams of brown sugar, 15-20 grams of astragalus, 15-20 grams of angelica, add 1000 ml of water and cook together. After boiling to 500 ml, pour out the soup, divide into 2 bowls, and add brown sugar. Start in the morning and evening three days before delivery. This method can increase the physical strength of pregnant women and is conducive to smooth delivery. At the same time, it can calm the nerves and quickly recover from fatigue. It also plays a role in preventing endless lochia after delivery.

    Mentally prepared

    Many pregnant women often write down negative feelings after consulting the person's birth experience, worrying that they will encounter the same situation. real

    Relax before giving birth

    Everyone has different production experience. Modern medical technology and production environment can also provide very safe care for production. Therefore, pregnant women only need to give themselves more confidence, without adding unnecessary pressure to themselves.

    The theory of human birth motivation

    In the long process of research on the causes of human childbirth, there have been many theories to explain this phenomenon, but so far no theory has been able to fully elucidate it. Each doctrine explains the reasons for the onset of labor from certain aspects, but fails to reveal the full picture of the reasons for the onset of labor. In a sense, the reason is due to the limitations of research methods. The speculation of the cause of human childbirth is nothing more than the basis: ① the results obtained from animal experiments; ② observe the changes of certain substances (such as hormones, bioactive mediators, etc.) in the human maternal circulation before childbirth; ③ observe the special pregnancy (such as no brain) In order to speculate on the reasons for the onset of childbirth, such as infants, prolonged pregnancy, premature delivery, twins, and polyhydramnios, etc.; ④ experience gained during artificial induction of labor; ⑤ compare the difference between normal delivery and cesarean section. Therefore, our observations on the causes of childbirth are fragmented, and we cannot obtain continuous observation data like in animal models. Moreover, it has been recognized that many factors that affect uterine activity are localized through autocrine or paracrine. However, due to methodological limitations, there is no information about the changes in various factors affecting the human uterus before and after delivery, and the results in the maternal circulation do not represent local changes, and also affect our understanding of the cause of the start. Nevertheless, with the continuous deepening of research, we have a more in-depth understanding of the causes of human birth.

    There are many theories about the causes of childbirth, and the various theories are related to each other, and as the research continues to deepen, the content of the various theories has also developed. Reviewing these theories helps to understand the motivation of childbirth. Among the various theories, the more representative ones are: neuromedia theory; mechanical theory; hormone control theory; immunology theory and cervical and lower uterine maturation theory. [1] Factors affecting delivery

    Factors affecting delivery should include fertility, birth canal, fetus and mental factors. Productivity is the driving force for childbirth. Normal childbirth relies on productivity to expel the fetus from the body, but at the same time it also requires the corresponding expansion of the soft birth canal and a large enough birth canal for the fetus to pass through. Productivity is affected by the position and size of the fetus and its relationship with the birth canal and mental and psychological factors. A smooth delivery depends on the mutual adaptation and coordination of these factors, otherwise it can lead to dystocia and cause unnecessary damage to the mother and fetus.

    In the past, more emphasis was placed on productivity, the relationship between the birth canal and the fetus. In recent years, the emphasis on the role of mental and psychological factors in childbirth is an advancement in obstetrics. Originally, childbirth is a normal physiological process, so during the whole process of childbirth, it is very important for the mother to maintain a good mental state to complete the childbirth successfully.

    Productivity is the driving force to expel the fetus and its appendages from the uterine cavity. Productivity includes uterine contractility, abdominal muscles and diaphragm contraction, and pelvic floor levator ani muscle contraction. Among them, the contractile force of the uterine muscle is the most important, and it always plays a leading role in the entire labor process. Abdominal muscles, diaphragm and levator ani will assist in the second stage of labor.

    The birth canal is the passage through which the fetus is delivered, including the bone birth canal and soft birth canal. The bone birth canal refers to the true pelvis, which consists of the sacrum, hip bones on both sides, pubic bones, ischia and their interconnected ligaments. The bone birth canal changes less during delivery, but not without any changes. In the third trimester of pregnancy, the water in the joints of the bones increases. During the delivery process, due to the effect of force and gravity, the bones are also slightly displaced, which increases the volume of the pelvis. In addition, the position of the parturient may also affect the diameter of different pelvic planes. The bone birth canal is a curved tube, and the fetus needs to make various movements when passing through to adapt to the birth canal, which is the delivery mechanism.

    The soft birth canal is composed of soft tissues of the lower uterus, cervix, vagina and pelvic floor.

    The size of the fetus, the position of the fetus and the presence or absence of malformations are important factors affecting the delivery process. The size of the fetus is relative to the size of the pelvis. The fetal head is the largest part of the fetus, the least plastic, and the most difficult part to pass through the pelvis. However, huge children who are too obese may also cause dystocia due to excessive subcutaneous fat.

    Psychological factors in the process of childbirth can significantly affect the productivity and thus the progress of the labor process. A domestic survey has shown that 98% of pregnant women have a fear of childbirth, 82% have a psychological burden on hospitalization, and 100% want to be accompanied by their family members. Since 1996, when the International Health Organization advocated the mother-loving childbirth initiative, accompanying childbirth methods have been adopted in many places in China. Practice has proved that in the process of childbirth, accompanied by an experienced person, comfortable touch and enthusiastic support to the parturient, eliminate the fear and anxiety of the parturient, make the delivery process in an atmosphere full of enthusiasm, care and encouragement, not only can Obviously reduce labor pain, shorten labor, increase the rate of normal delivery, and also reduce the surgical yield and postpartum hemorrhage. This shows the importance of mental and psychological factors for normal delivery. [1]

    Symptoms of labor

    Uterine fundus

    A few weeks before delivery, because the fetal head enters the pelvis, pregnant women will feel a little more relaxed in the upper abdomen, breathing and appetite will also improve significantly, but the frequency of urination increases, and walking is not comfortable. This is why the fundus of the uterus drops.

    Uterine contractions

    A few days before delivery, a pregnant woman will feel her abdomen stiffening for a while, which may be accompanied by a slight feeling of bulging, which is the contraction of the uterus. Uterine contractions at this time tend to last for a short period of time, with varying intervals. They often appear at night and disappear in the morning, and the uterine mouth will not expand. The vast majority of pregnant women give birth within two weeks before and after the expected date of delivery. When abdominal pain is regular, and the interval is getting shorter and shorter, the pain time is prolonged, it indicates that the labor is about to be delivered.

    See red

    24-48 hours before delivery, the discharge of a small amount of bloody mucus from the vagina is called "redness", or broken water, that is, the amniotic sac in the uterus ruptures and amniotic fluid flows out, which is also a reliable sign of labor. The redness may last for a few days with a little excretion every day; it may also suddenly appear red. If you see a lot of redness that exceeds your usual menstrual flow, you should go to the hospital and contact your doctor or midwife in time.

    Pain during childbirth

    The pain caused by uterine contractions will continue throughout the delivery process. Uterine contractions are mainly in the lower abdomen, and sometimes also occur on the inner sides of the two strands or above the spine. The uterine contractions felt by most women are similar to menstrual cramps, but more intense. When the fetus is about to be born, due to the expansion of the perineum and vulva, the mother will feel burning and intense pain in these parts. Find a comfortable position and take deep breaths in a relaxed state to relieve labor pain.

    To be fully prepared for the pain of childbirth. Childbirth is a natural physiological phenomenon, and the pain of childbirth is a physical pain, and most people can tolerate it. However, there must be a period of severe pain during delivery. If you do not have sufficient mental preparation, pregnant women will be overwhelmed by unexpected pain.

    During childbirth, yelling can prolong labor.

    Fear of childbirth

    Childbirth is painful but not so terrible. Being physically and mentally prepared helps to endure the pain.

    You must have a positive attitude toward pain during childbirth. You don’t need to be afraid or anxious. You can use self-suggestion and self-comfort. For example, you can say to yourself repeatedly: “I don’t feel pain. I am going well. Every time I feel pain, I take a step towards my destination. I can see the baby soon."

    In addition, before pregnancy, you should familiarize yourself with the environment of the childbirth hospital, communicate with the doctor to determine the most suitable delivery method, and let the doctor guide the preparations for childbirth, such as breathing exercises.

    You can also ask your doctor about painless delivery, drug-induced analgesia and other delivery methods to relieve labor pain. You can also choose Doula delivery, or choose family-style ward, husband's accompany or seated delivery, etc., to guide the mother to give birth safely and smoothly.

    Comparison of the pros and cons of the two delivery methods

    Natural vaginal delivery

    Natural vaginal delivery refers to the delivery method in which the fetus develops normally, the pelvic growth of the pregnant woman is normal, the pregnant woman is in good physical condition, and the safety is guaranteed. Usually, the fetus is delivered through the vagina without manual intervention. When deciding to give birth naturally, pregnant women should first understand when to give birth and the whole process of giving birth. Natural vaginal delivery is the most ideal way of delivery. It does not cause much damage to the mother and the fetus. It also recovers quickly after delivery and has fewer complications. You can get out of bed on the day of delivery. Moreover, for babies, lung function is exercised when they come out of the birth canal, and skin nerve endings are stimulated and massaged. Their nerves and sensory systems are better developed and have stronger resistance. When the baby passes through the birth canal, the head is squeezed. Conducive to the rapid establishment of normal breathing after birth.

    [2] Conditions for natural childbirth

    1. The posture of the fetus should belong to the stretched breech position.

    2. The pelvic cavity of pregnant women must be large enough, not too small, and the labor progress is normal.

    3. The fetus cannot be too big.

    4. Maternity. If there is anything wrong in the process of delivery, change to emergency cesarean section at any time. Natural delivery should not be insisted on, and the safety of the fetus must be considered.

    The advantages and disadvantages of natural childbirth

    Benefits: 1. The fetus is naturally squeezed through the birth canal, which can expel the amniotic fluid accumulated in the lung interstitium and prevent the baby from suffering from "wet lung" syndrome.

    2. It can reduce the complications of maternal surgery and reduce trauma.

    3. The coordination of body movements of babies born naturally is better than that of babies born in other ways.

    4. It can enhance mother-child communication and cooperation, and enhance women's sense of happiness and responsibility as mothers.

    5. It is also conducive to the elimination of postpartum lochia, the uterus is restored, and the postpartum recovery is fast, and it will not affect future fertility at all. In addition, the milk is also faster.

    Disadvantages: At the same time, we must also understand some of the disadvantages of natural childbirth: 1. There is a certain amount of damage to the vagina.

    2. If the contraction pain is more serious, the labor process will be longer.

    3. It may have a certain impact on future sex life.

    4. If you encounter a dystocia, you may need to switch to a cesarean section, which will cause double injury.

    Caesarean section

    Caesarean delivery means opening the abdominal wall and uterus to remove the fetus. Pregnant women with narrow pelvis, abnormal placenta, abnormal birth canal or premature water breaking, and abnormal fetus, need to end the delivery method that is often adopted during delivery as soon as possible. If the case is selected properly and the operation is performed in a timely manner, it can not only save the lives of mother and child, but also enable mother and daughter to maintain normal production performance and continue to reproduce the offspring. Caesarean section can save the mother from suffering from labor pains. If there are other diseases in the abdominal cavity, they can also be treated together. However, the caesarean section will cause more damage to the parturient, and the postpartum recovery will be slower, and there may be sequelae of the operation.

    Medical measures during pregnancy

    Starting from the advancement of the delivery room, the medical staff have been surrounded by them every step of the way. Relax! Everything is for the smooth delivery, as long as you are strong, you will be solved.


    The medical staff injects some kind of liquid into the pregnant mother's intestines to empty the stool, because the intestines are full and the labor will be delayed.

    Procedure: The enema is performed by the medical staff, there will be a little discomfort, you can adjust the breath easily. After completing the injection, you need to stay in the bathroom for 10-20 minutes to resolve. This action sometimes requires help from family members.

    Skin preparation

    Shaving the body hair of the genitals is convenient for medical staff to deliver babies, and can prevent bacterial infection, so that the wound of perineal incision is easy to care and recover. It should be noted that small wounds are likely to be caused during the skin preparation process, which requires careful care to prevent bacterial infection.

    Artificial water breaking

    If the water has not been broken naturally before delivery, medical staff will break the water artificially before or during delivery. This process does not make the pregnant mother feel painful, but is a bit uncomfortable like an internal consultation.

    Fetal Heart Sound Monitoring

    During labor, the fetal heart sound detector is usually used until the end of labor. This instrument provides a continuous record of the pressure and frequency of uterine contractions and the heartbeat of the fetus, and draws the contractions and heartbeat into graphs.

    Medical staff need to use this continuous record to know the heartbeat of the baby during the entire delivery process (especially during contractions).

    Intravenous injection

    Generally, an intravenous injection is given before entering the delivery room. Instill some glucose or saline to supplement energy and water. This can keep the mother and baby in good condition. In addition, intravenous injections can also prevent dehydration of pregnant mothers, supply body heat, and facilitate the injection of pain-relieving drugs from the vein.

    The location of intravenous injection is usually on the back of the hand or wrist, and the drip is injected through a vein.

    Delivery process

    Childbirth is usually divided into three consecutive processes.

    Delivery diagram

    First stage of labor

    Also known as cervical dilation. From the beginning of regular uterine contractions with an interval of 5-6 minutes, the cervix completely expands up to 10 cm, which enables the delivery of the fetal head. This process takes 11-12 hours for primiparous women and 6-8 hours for postpartum women.

    Cooperation in the first stage of labor:

    1. Eliminate fear, keep calm and optimistic;

    2. Eat on time, eat well and drink well, and supplement enough nutrition;

    3. Urinate regularly, once every 2-4 hours, to make the bladder empty, so as not to hinder the fetal head from falling;

    4. If the fetal membranes are not broken, with the consent of the doctor, you can walk in the delivery room;

    5. Some auxiliary pain reduction actions can also be done during contractions.

    Second stage of labor

    Also known as the delivery period of the fetus. It is from the complete dilation of the cervix to the delivery of the fetus. It takes about 1-2 hours for primiparous women, usually within a few minutes to complete the process, but there are some as long as 1 hour.

    The peak of childbirth comes and the baby is about to be born. The fetal head moves close to the vaginal opening, and the vulva and anal areas appear to bulge due to the pressure of the fetal head on the pelvic floor. Soon you will see the fetal head, which moves forward with each contraction. When the contraction disappears, it may slide back a little bit.

    When the top of the fetal head can be seen, the midwife will tell the pregnant woman not to use too much force, because if the fetal head is delivered too quickly, the skin of the pregnant woman's perineum may tear, so the pregnant woman should relax and take a few seconds to pant for breath. If there is a risk of severe tearing, or when the fetus is in distress, the pregnant woman will undergo a perineotomy. When the fetal head expands the vaginal opening, the pregnant woman will have a tingling sensation, followed by numbness, which is caused by blocking the nerve conduction when the vaginal tissue expands very thin.

    When the head is delivered, the baby's face is facing down. The midwife may want to check the umbilical cord to make sure that the baby’s neck is not entangled in the umbilical cord (when the baby’s body is delivered, the umbilical cord often wraps around the head). Then, the baby's head is turned to one side so that the head and shoulders are kept in line. The midwife cleans the baby’s eyes, nose and mouth, and if necessary, sucks out the liquid from the baby’s respiratory tract.

    During the following two contractions, the baby's body will slide out of the mother's body. Usually the midwife will put his hand under the baby's armpit to lift her out and place it on the pregnant woman's abdomen, while the baby is still connected to the umbilical cord. At first the baby looks a little bit blue, the skin is covered with fetal fat and has blood streaks, and will cry. In addition, the midwife will clean the baby's airways again and give oxygen if necessary.

    Third stage of labor

    Also known as the placenta delivery period. It takes about 5-15 minutes from the delivery of the fetus to the delivery of the placenta, and should not exceed 30 minutes.

    After the fetus is delivered, there will still be contractions to promote the delivery of the placenta, but the contractions at this time are relatively painless. Afterwards, the doctor will tidy up the pregnant woman, and if there is a crack in the vulva, it will make a partial suture.

    Perineal incision

    When primiparous women give birth, most people will have a perineal incision. Perineal incision is often used in the following situations:

    Position of the perineum incision

    1. The perineum of primiparous women is tight, and there are often different degrees of tears during childbirth. The purpose of cutting the vagina is to prevent irregular tears and damage to the anus.

    2. In order to facilitate the operation to prevent perineal laceration, most parturients need an incision during the operation.

    3. When the fetus is in distress, it should be delivered quickly, and the vagina can be cut to achieve a quick goal.

    4. Although the fetus of premature babies is small, in order to avoid damage to the delicate fetus, it is necessary to perform an episiotomy.

    5. Episiotomy can shorten the delivery time, reduce pelvic floor tissue relaxation, reduce postpartum vaginal bulging and uterine prolapse, and will not affect future sexual life.

    Normal delivery

    Conditions for normal delivery

    First of all, mothers give birth at the age of 25 to 29, and they are more likely to give birth successfully. The older you are, the higher the risk of complications such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease. Therefore, cesarean section is generally used.

    The second is whether the maternal nutrition is reasonable and the weight is qualified. The ideal pregnancy weight is: pregnancy in the first trimester (within 3 months), increase of 2 kg, second trimester pregnancy (3-6 months) and third trimester (pregnancy 7~ 9 months) each increase by 5 kg. That is, a total increase of about 12 kg before and after is appropriate. If the whole pregnancy increases by more than 20 kg. It is possible that the baby will grow too large, and it is not appropriate to choose a natural delivery at this time.

    In addition, it also depends on whether the mother has the strength to deliver. Generally, the labor process takes about 14 hours and requires sufficient physical strength to complete. Systematic exercise will greatly help ensure the physical strength during delivery. Finally, it depends on whether the mother is psychologically prepared to bear the pain of childbirth. Without sufficient psychological preparation, it is not suitable to give birth.

    Can pregnant women with hemorrhoids give birth smoothly?

    Pregnant women with hemorrhoids can be delivered smoothly because the baby is delivered from the vagina. However, pregnant women may have certain effects on hemorrhoids during delivery. That is to say, in the process of normal delivery, pregnant women will exert excessive force and the abdominal pressure will increase sharply. Continuous exertion will cause the hemorrhoids to be incarcerated and the pain will be unbearable. And after giving birth, the anus is still very painful and life will be seriously affected.

    Precautions for pregnant women to give birth suddenly

    1. Aseptic operation is required to handle sudden childbirth. To prevent newborns from getting tetanus, it is still necessary to ask a doctor to inject tetanus antitoxin immediately.

    2. When the umbilical cord is ligated, apply the sterilized thread to the root of the umbilical cord close to the baby's belly button. First make a loop and tie it tightly, tie two dead buttons, and then loop again to tie the knot. Also, close to the mother's side, which is more than an inch away from the first ligation line, ligate one more line to tie the dead button. Cut the umbilical cord in the middle of the two ligatures, and wrap the umbilical cord with a sterile cloth.

    3. The placenta is mostly delivered within 15-30 minutes. If it has not been delivered for a long time, attention should be paid!

    Can the fetal position be abnormal?

    Improper fetal position can lead to dystocia, and under normal circumstances, the solution to dystocia is basically a cesarean section. Experts remind that if the fetal position is incorrect, cesarean section should be adopted as much as possible, and it is not recommended to give birth.

    In terms of obstetric treatment, the diagnosis is confirmed when the fetal position is still abnormal at nine months (36 weeks) pregnancy, but there are still a very small number of prolific women who still have the opportunity to change the fetal position before giving birth.

    In the 32-34 weeks of pregnancy or the fetal position is not correct-"breech position" should be decided 1. Implement artificial fetal transfer method; 2. Natural breech delivery; 3. Direct caesarean section.

    Help with delivery

    Method 1 choose the right age for delivery

    Childbirth at the age of 35 is already an advanced primipara. With age. The risk factor of pregnancy and childbirth is increased.

    First of all, if you are too old, the joints of the birth canal, perineum, and pelvis become hard and difficult to expand. The contractility of the uterus and the tension of the vagina are also poor, so that the delivery time is prolonged and dystocia is prone to occur. Secondly, the older the pregnant woman is, the more chances of complications of hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease will be. Therefore, the more chances that the pregnant woman will not be able to give birth and require cesarean section intervention.

    Most medical experts believe that the best age for women to give birth is around 25 to 29 years old, and women in this age group may have a larger childbirth.

    Method 2 Reasonable nutrition during pregnancy and weight control

    If a baby weighs more than 4000 grams (called a giant baby in medicine), the maternal dystocia rate will increase greatly. If the doctor predicts that the fetus weighs more than 4000 grams in the prenatal examination, it is generally recommended that the mother give birth by cesarean section.

    A normal-sized fetus can be delivered smoothly through a normal pelvis. However, if the head of a huge baby is larger, the fetal head may "strand" at the entrance of the pelvis. It is difficult to pass through the pelvis and has to be delivered by cesarean section. If the gigantic baby is fatter, although it can barely pass through the pelvis, it takes a lot of effort for the parturient to give birth and may have to use forceps or a fetal head aspirator to help the fetus deliver. If the fetus has more fat in the shoulders and the shoulders are particularly wide, shoulder dystocia may occur.

    The production of macrophages is related to excessive nutritional supplementation, excessive fat intake and insufficient physical exercise of pregnant women. Pregnant women suffering from diabetes, the fetus's blood sugar will continue to increase, and stimulate the fetal pancreas to secrete too much insulin, which will inevitably cause excessive accumulation of fat, protein and glycogen in the fetus, leading to the fetus growing up and obese.

    Gymnastics during pregnancy

    In order to control the weight of the newborn, during pregnancy, pregnant women should participate in activities appropriately, not sitting or lying down all day. Eat more fresh vegetables and protein-rich foods, and eat less foods that contain carbohydrates and high fat content, such as desserts, fried foods, sweet drinks, and fruits. The ideal pregnancy weight should be increased by 2 kg within 3 months of the first trimester, 5 kg each in the third to 6 months of pregnancy or 7 to 9 months of the final pregnancy, with a total of about 12 kg. If the increase of more than 20 kg during the whole pregnancy, it may make the baby grow too large.

    Method 3 gymnastics during pregnancy

    Gymnastics during pregnancy is not only conducive to weight control during pregnancy, but also conducive to smooth delivery:

    1. Gymnastics exercise can increase the tension and elasticity of the abdominal muscles, back muscles and pelvic floor muscles, make joints and ligaments loose and soft, help relax the muscles during delivery, reduce the resistance of the birth canal, and enable the fetus to pass through the birth canal faster . According to relevant research results, the normal vaginal birth rate of those who insist on practicing pregnant women's gymnastics is significantly higher than that of women who do not do gymnastics, and the delivery process is shorter than the latter.

    2. Gymnastics during pregnancy can relieve the fatigue and stress of expectant mothers and enhance the confidence of natural childbirth.

    Of course, pregnancy is a special physiological process after all. Mothers-to-be should pay attention to exercise time, amount of exercise, and warm-up preparation when practicing gymnastics to prevent excessive fatigue and avoid contractions. In addition, there is a history of habitual miscarriage, a history of premature birth, this pregnancy with placenta previa or severe medical complications should not be used for pregnancy gymnastics.

    Method 4 Regular prenatal checkups

    The rules for regular prenatal checkups for pregnant women are formulated in accordance with the characteristics of fetal development and maternal physiological changes. The purpose is to check fetal development and the health of pregnant women, so that problems can be detected early, and corrected and treated early. So that pregnant women and fetuses can smoothly pass the pregnancy and delivery.

    The general requirement for prenatal checkups throughout pregnancy is 9-13 times. The first checkup is generally 4 months of pregnancy, monthly checkups during 4-7 months of pregnancy, biweekly checkups for 8-9 months of pregnancy, and weekly checkups in the last month; if there is any abnormality, follow the doctor Arrange a date for the follow-up visit to check.

    Regular inspections can continuously observe the development of the fetus at various stages and the physical changes of the pregnant woman, such as whether the fetus grows and develops normally in the womb, whether the pregnant woman's nutrition is good, etc.; it can also detect the common complications of pregnant women such as gestational hypertension, diabetes, anemia, etc. Disease in order to be treated in time to prevent the disease from developing to a serious stage and affecting vaginal delivery. During pregnancy, the fetal position can also change, if it is found in time, it can be corrected in time. If the inspection is performed irregularly or too late, even if an abnormal situation is found, it will be difficult or impossible to correct because of the delay. Therefore, regular prenatal check-ups are necessary for a smooth delivery.

    Method 5 correct fetal position

    Fetal position refers to the relationship between the position of the fetus in the uterus and the pelvis. The normal fetal position should be that the head of the fetus is bent, the occipital bone is in front, and the head first extends into the pelvis during delivery. It is called "head first exposure" in medicine. This kind of fetal position is generally smooth. In addition, other fetal positions belong to incorrect fetal position, including breech position, transverse position and compound presentation.

    Normally, if the fetal position is found to be incorrect before 7 months of pregnancy, just strengthen the observation. Because before 30 weeks of pregnancy, the fetus is relatively small compared to the uterus, and there is more amniotic fluid in the mother's uterus, the fetus has room for movement and will correct the fetal position by itself. If the fetal position is still incorrect at 30 to 34 weeks of gestation, correction is required. The following is an introduction to the correction methods that pregnant women can do at home:

    Correction of knee and chest exercises

    The pregnant woman empties her bladder, loosens her belt, pushes up on a board bed, pushes on her knees, raises her hips, and her thighs are perpendicular to the bed, and her chest should be as close to the bed as possible. Do it once every morning and evening for 15 minutes each time for 1 week. Then go to the hospital for review. This posture allows the fetal buttocks to exit the pelvic cavity, and with the help of the fetal center of gravity, the arc formed by the fetal head and the fetal back slides along the arc of the uterine fundus to complete the fetal position correction.

    Method 6 prepare for childbirth

    One month before the expected date of delivery, expectant mothers should learn about childbirth through doctors or books and be psychologically prepared. Two weeks before the expected date of delivery, pregnant women may feel irregular uterine contractions several times a day. After bed rest, the contractions will disappear quickly. During this time, pregnant women need to maintain a normal life and sleep, eat nutritious and easily digestible foods, such as milk, eggs, etc., to prepare enough physical strength for childbirth. Before giving birth, pregnant women should maintain a stable mood. Once contractions begin, they should have firm confidence and believe that they can give birth safely and smoothly with the help of doctors and midwives.

    Method 7 Doula delivery

    Doula is a professional who accompanies the mother during the whole process of delivery. Her job is to guide the mother to give birth smoothly and naturally. If you hire a Doula, during the delivery process, Doula will accompany the mother at all times to guide and observe the mother and provide "one-to-one" care. Usually when the mother's uterus opens two centimeters, Doula will start to accompany the whole process. Throughout the process of labor, Doula should guide the mothers in every step of the delivery, explain the causes of contractions, and encourage the mothers. At the same time, they also need to provide psychological counseling for the mothers to help them overcome their fears.

    After research, with Doula's full-time escort, the mother's psychological pressure is reduced, the confidence is strengthened, the hospital's natural delivery rate is greatly improved, and the postpartum hemorrhage rate and the heart hypoxia rate are significantly reduced. At present, many maternity and child health hospitals provide "Doula" services for midwifery, and the fee is about 200 yuan. Although many expectant mothers are not very familiar with "Doula", after hospitalization, they will hear about pregnant women accompanied by "Doula" Introduction and publicity of the hospital. At this time, it's not too late to ask the midwife Doula.

    Gymnastics during pregnancy helps you give birth easily

    Delay muscle aging and maintain joint flexibility. Promote blood circulation. Prevent pain and discomfort in the waist and back. Help pregnant women better grasp the essentials of delivery during childbirth.

    Prevent lack of exercise, relieve fatigue, and be happy. Gymnastics during pregnancy should start after knowing that you are pregnant. As the joints of elderly pregnant women have become stiff, giving birth

    So we need to start with some relaxing exercises. And gradually increase the time and frequency of exercise after 19 weeks of pregnancy.

    In the first period of time, repeat each movement 3 times. After the body gradually adapts, it can be increased to 10 times. You can do it several times in a day, but the most important thing is persistence.

    Correct posture and movement

    For pregnant women, incorrect posture can easily cause fatigue and discomfort to the entire body. Therefore, women during pregnancy must maintain the correct posture and pay full attention to daily movements. First of all, when standing, you should spread your legs parallel to each other, relax your shoulders, and tuck your abdomen, so that your head will feel pulled upward. Secondly, when walking, you must touch your heels on the ground first, tighten your hips, and walk in a balanced manner as if you lift your stomach. And step on it firmly to prevent falling. Finally, when sitting on a chair, your back should be leaning straight against the back of the chair, the hip and knee joints should be at right angles, and the thighs should be level.

    (1) Standing posture

    Do not protrude forward. The whole body feels pulled upward. Relax your shoulders and keep your feet parallel. Wear comfortable flat shoes when going out.

    (2) When walking, don't protrude your abdomen forward, and your heels should touch the ground first.

    (3) Sitting position

    Sit in the center of the chair and use both hands to support the waist and move it toward the back of the chair. Straighten your back so that it rests comfortably on the back of the chair. The feet are parallel and spread apart.

    (4) Up and down stairs

    ① Put one foot on the steps in the order of the toes first and then the heels, and at the same time straighten the waist.

    ②Move the center of gravity forward and push the whole body forward with the back foot.

    Repeat the actions of ① and ②.

    (5) Other points:

    ① Straighten your back.

    ② Avoid bending the upper body forward (cat waist).

    ③The action should be divided into two stages.

    ④Don't press the abdomen.

    Foot exercise (3 minutes each time, several times a day)

    Two feet close together:

    The feet are close together, and the legs are perpendicular to the ground. Put the soles of your feet against the floor, tilt your toes up, and return to the original shape after breathing once.

    Toe movement:

    sit on the chair. Put one leg on the other. The ankle of the upper leg is the fulcrum, and the toes are moved up and down. When the toes are down, keep them in line with the knees.

    Function: Soft foot joints, strong foot muscles, so that you can easily support the sharp increase in weight and walk happily.

    Cross-leg exercise (2 times in the morning and evening), 2 to 3 minutes each time)

    Sit cross-legged, straighten your back, and gently place your hands on your knees. Every time you breathe, press your hand once.

    Effect: relax the waist joint, stretch and flex the pelvic muscles, so that the baby can pass the birth canal smoothly during delivery.

    Chest exercise

    Sit cross-legged, straighten your back, cross your wrists and grab your right arm with your left hand and your left arm with your right hand. Push the arms outward with both hands at the same time. Stand tall and relax your shoulders. This exercise can also be changed to push the palms together in front of the chest.

    Function: Improve blood circulation, strengthen chest muscles, prevent breast sagging, and enhance arm strength.

    Pelvic exercise (5 times each morning and evening)

    Touch the ground with both hands and knees, and tighten the anus while exhaling. Bow your head and arch your back into a circle. Inhale and exhale to soothe the anus, raise your head, keep your face forward, keep your weight forward, and do one exercise with every breath.

    Function: relax pelvis and waist joints, soften birth canal muscles, and strengthen lower abdominal muscles.

    Upper body exercise (10 times a day, 10 times each time)

    ①Shoulder movement

    Raise your arms flat to your shoulders, bend your elbows inward and touch your shoulders lightly. Continue to raise the elbow so that it meets the ear and rotate the entire elbow forward.

    Function: Soften shoulder and neck joints, eliminate fatigue of shoulder and neck.

    ②Transverse flexion exercise (alternate left and right 5-6 times)

    Cross your hands behind your head, relax your breathing, and bend your upper body to one side. When the muscles under the ribs cannot be stretched, return to the original posture.

    Function: Enhance the mobility of the back bone, stretch the rib muscles, and enhance the flexibility of the upper body.

    Waist movement

    (1) Vibrating pelvic exercises (wake up in the morning and several times before going to bed in the evening) are in a supine position, with your back close to the bed and your knees bent. Place the palms of both hands down at your sides. When the waist is pressed into the bed surface, shrink the anus and arch the abdomen upward so that the flat palm can be inserted between the erected back and the bed surface. Count 10 times silently to restore the original posture.

    Function: relax the joints of the pelvis and waist, soften the muscles of the birth canal exit, and strengthen the lower abdominal muscles.

    (2) Knee bending exercise (5 times in the morning and evening) Lie on your back and stand with your knees together. Slowly fall your knees together to one side. Should not leave the bed.

    Function: Strengthen rib muscles and soften waist joints.

    (3) Lie on your back with one leg bent knees (5 times on the left and right sides), with your left leg straight, your right leg bent at your knees, and your right foot flat against the bed. The knee of the right leg slowly fell to the left. After returning to the original position, dump it in the opposite direction. Alternate left and right legs.

    Function: Strengthen rib muscles and soften waist joints.

    Relaxed posture

    Prone position, when the right side is down, you can place your right hand behind your body and your left hand near your face. Bend the right knee slightly and the left knee upwards, while putting a soft pillow under the left knee.

    Role: relax the body muscles.

    Fetal dystocia

    Most parturients can give birth smoothly, but 18% of parturients can have different degrees of dystocia. The difficulty of childbirth depends on the three factors of birth canal, productivity and fetus. If these three factors are normal and coordinated with each other, delivery can be smooth. The birth canal can be determined accurately by pelvic measurement and vaginal examination or X-ray pelvic measurement during pregnancy. Whether the size and position of the fetus are normal to the third trimester can also be roughly judged. Only the factor of productivity is still unknown before the labor and can only be manifested after labor. Generally, it takes a certain period of time after delivery to see the momentum of childbirth and judge whether it will be difficult to give birth.

    Forceps and fetal suction

    The obstetric forceps use two forceps blades to clamp the cheekbone on both sides of the fetal head to pull out the fetus. Occasionally, the fetal head can also be rotated to correct

    Obstetric forceps and baby suction device

    The position of the fetal head is not correct. The fetal suction device uses negative pressure to suck the fetal head for traction and rotation to expand the birth canal and accelerate delivery. The force of the forceps is greater than that of the suction. These two devices are used in the following situations:

    1. Prolonged second stage of labor;

    2. Patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension or heart disease need to shorten the second stage of labor;

    3. When fetal distress needs to deliver the fetus quickly;

    4. Scar the uterus to prevent uterine rupture;

    5. Placenta previa or abruption of placenta can be traction and compression with aspirator to stop bleeding.

    Cesarean section

    It is a means to solve the difficulty of childbirth, which is used in the following situations:

    1. Abnormal birth canal. Such as pelvic stenosis, inability to dilate the cervix, and uterine malformations.

    2. The fetus is too large and the fetal position is abnormal.

    3. Prenatal hemorrhage, such as placenta previa, placental abruption.

    4. The parturient has severe pregnancy complications or complications, and it is difficult to bear vaginal delivery.

    5. The fetus is in poor condition and cannot tolerate vaginal delivery or requires cesarean section to rescue the fetus.

    6. The special circumstances of pregnancy, such as conceived after years of infertility treatment, or successful habitual abortion, are known as precious children.

    Scarred uterus

    The uterus that has undergone a cesarean section or a uterine fibroids excavation is left with surgical scars called scarred uterus. Weak scars during childbirth may rupture. Whether vaginal delivery is possible or not requires careful estimation of the scar fastness. After the doctor comprehensively considers various factors, if he thinks the scar fastness is poor, he will choose a cesarean section. For those who go well, the uterine orifice is fully opened and the forceps are used to assist the delivery. In case of danger during labor, a cesarean section is still required.

    Postpartum hemorrhage

    The bleeding during childbirth is generally within 200 ml, which can be tolerated by healthy women. Postpartum hemorrhage exceeding 500 ml is called postpartum hemorrhage, and it is called postpartum hemorrhage in the private sector. Postpartum hemorrhage is currently the leading cause of maternal death and should be taken seriously. Where twin pregnancy, giant babies, polyhydramnios, pregnant women older than 35 years of age, combined with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and medical diseases, too many births, pregnant women are prone to uterine contraction fatigue, uterine contraction fatigue is easy Bleeding after delivery. In addition, the placenta cannot be discharged completely in time after giving birth, and women with multiple abortions are also prone to postpartum hemorrhage. Pregnant women who have blood coagulation dysfunction and have bleeding tendency are particularly prone to postpartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage has occurred in the past, and it is easy to recur after giving birth again.

    Postpartum care

    Turn over more after the first nursing method

    Anesthetics can inhibit bowel movement, causing different degrees of flatulence, and thus abdominal distension. Therefore, it is advisable to do more turning movements after childbirth to promote the early recovery of the paralyzed intestinal muscles, so that the gas in the intestines can be discharged as soon as possible. You can soak some senna water for 12 hours after the operation to help reduce abdominal distension.

    Nursing method two pay attention to doing fitness exercises

    About 10 days after the caesarean section, if your body recovers well, you can start fitness exercises. The method is: lying on your back, raising your legs alternately, first perpendicular to your body, then slowly lowering, doing 5 times for each of your legs; lying on your back, naturally place your arms on both sides of your body, bend your right leg, and make your thigh Try to get close to the abdomen, close your heels to the hips, do the left and right legs alternately, 5 times each; lie on your back, bend your knees, cross your arms in front of your chest, slowly sit in a semi-sitting position, and then return to the supine position; lie on your back with both knees Bend, raise and straighten your arms, do sit-ups; in prone position, bend your legs to your chest, your thighs are perpendicular to the bed, and your hips should be lifted. 2-3 minutes gradually extended to 10 minutes.

    Nursing method three-beds should take half-reclining position

    The body of parturients after caesarean section recovers more slowly, and they cannot get up and move around 24 hours after delivery, just like those who give birth to the vagina in a natural way. Therefore, it is easy to cause lochia in a caesarean section, but if you take a semi-recumbent position and turn over more, it will promote the discharge of lochia and prevent the lochia from accumulating in the uterine cavity, causing infection and affecting the reduction of the uterus, and it is also beneficial to the uterine incision. heal.

    Nursing method four do your best to get out of bed early

    As long as physical strength allows, you should get out of bed as early as possible after childbirth and gradually increase the amount of activity. In this way, not only can increase the function of bowel motility, promote uterine reset, but also avoid intestinal adhesions and thrombophlebitis.

    Nursing method five pay attention to urination after delivery

    In order to facilitate the operation, a catheter is usually placed before the caesarean section. 24-48 hours after the operation, the effect of anesthetics disappears, and the bladder muscles resume urination. At this time, the catheter can be pulled out. As long as there is a desire to urinate, you must try to urinate on your own and reduce the retention time of the catheter. And cause the risk of urinary tract bacterial infection.

    Nursing Method 6 Keep the vagina and abdominal incision clean

    Within 2 weeks after the operation, avoid wet abdominal incisions. The whole body should be cleaned with a scrub bath. After this, you can take a shower, but bathing must be prohibited before the lochia is drained; wash the vulva 1-2 times a day, and be careful not to let dirty water Enter-enter the vaginal tract; if the wound is red, swollen, hot, or painful, do not squeeze the dressing by yourself, and seek medical attention in time to prevent the wound infection from prolonging and unhealing, so that the entire maternity leave is "soaked" in the wound treatment.

    Nursing Method 7 Do not eat flatulence food

    The gastrointestinal function can be restored after caesarean section about 24 hours. After the gastrointestinal function is restored, give liquid food for 1 day, such as egg soup, rice soup, avoid milk, soy milk, large amounts of sucrose and other flatulence foods. After the intestinal gas is exhausted, switch to semi-liquid food for 1-2 days, such as gruel, noodle soup, wonton, etc., and then switch to ordinary diet.

    Eighth nursing method should use less painkillers

    After caesarean section, the effect of anesthetics gradually disappeared, and the pain of the abdominal wound began to recover. Generally, the wound began to suffer severe pain a few hours after the operation. In order to have a good rest and make the body recover as soon as possible, ask the doctor to give some painkillers on the day or night of the operation. After this, be more patient with the pain, and it is best not to use drugs to relieve pain, so as not to affect the recovery of bowel movement. Generally speaking, the pain of the wound will disappear on its own after 3 days.

    Nursing Law ninth puerperium absolutely prohibits intercourse

    100 days after the caesarean section, if the vagina is no longer bleeding, the doctor will check that the wound is healing well, and sex life can be restored. However, strict contraceptive measures must be taken to avoid pregnancy. Otherwise, the scarred uterus is prone to perforation or even rupture during curettage.

    Health exercises

    Doing maternity exercises before delivery can prevent muscle fatigue and decreased function caused by weight gain and center of gravity changes during pregnancy, relax the waist and pelvic muscles, exercise the joints and muscles directly related to delivery, and lay the foundation for the smooth delivery of the baby during delivery.

    Psychological test

    Stress and anxiety in childbirth

    The process of childbirth is a major psychological and physical stress for mother and child. The mother's response to stress is mainly fear and anxiety, which can affect the delivery process. Although there are not many experimental studies, it is recognized that emotions affect childbirth. In recent years, some research reports indicate that there is anxiety or depression during childbirth (but lack of evidence of adaptation and emotional response), and the incidence of obstetric comorbidities is higher (Nillson, 1972). During delivery, the levels of cortisol in maternal and fetal blood increase (Morris, 1979). During a cesarean section, the blood cortisol level of the mother and child is lower than when the forceps were delivered (Goser, 1977). Epidural anesthesia can block the increase in mother and child cortisol levels that usually occur during childbirth (Buchane et al., 1973). The use of oxytocin can increase fetal cortisol levels. The longer the delivery process, the higher the cortisol level of the newborn on the first day (Yoshida, 1977). These data suggest that the birth stress is dominated by physical stress or is of a physical and psychological nature.

    Maternal anxiety and fetal death

    Psychological stress of pregnant women can affect the blood supply of the uterus and the oxygen supply of the fetus through the mediation of sympathetic nerves. Animal experiments have shown that intravenous injection of catecholamines can contract uterine arteries, reduce uterine blood flow, and cause fetal bradycardia, lower blood pressure, and lower fetal arterial blood oxygen content. Unfamiliar environment, high noise or shocking stimuli can also reduce uterine artery blood flow. In the late pregnancy, daily injection of epinephrine can cause premature delivery, stillbirth, or embryonic developmental delay in pregnant rabbits; psychological stress can reduce the blood oxygen content of the maternal and embryonic arterial blood of the macaque. Studies have also shown that psychosocial support can increase the survival rate of the fetus after re-pregnancy in women who have died more than three times. [3]

    After giving birth, the new mother has not only undergone tremendous changes in physiology, but also subtle changes in her mentality. During pregnancy, expectant mothers have been enjoying various aspects of care, which will inevitably cause psychological gaps and mood swings after delivery. As a result, many new mothers become more temperamental after giving birth, and become angry at every turn. I feel that my family does not care about myself as much as before, and my colleagues are no longer considerate to myself. Coupled with the pressure and changes at work, the new mother will be psychologically uncomfortable.

    Depressed postpartum

    After childbirth, half of the mothers experience mild depression for a period of time. This condition is called postpartum depression. It is not as serious as postpartum depression. It may only last a few hours or a few days, and then disappear.

    After the pain of childbirth, most new mothers feel aggrieved and cry easily after childbirth. We categorize the crying or melancholy that appeared from the start of childbirth to the 7th day after childbirth as postpartum depression. When postpartum mothers suffer from postpartum depression, they feel very emotional, easy to feel sad, and cry for no reason. They may find that it is not easy to be happy.

    Some mothers feel very anxious and nervous. Small problems often make depressed mothers very upset and at a loss. Some postpartum mothers have pain caused by non-medical factors, or some feel that they are sick, but they do not have any special symptoms. Most mothers who suffer from postpartum depression feel that most of the time they are very tired and lethargic, and they often have trouble sleeping.

    Simulate the process of childbirth

    Postpartum depression

    Postpartum depression refers to the symptoms of tearing, restlessness, sadness, depression, low concentration, and forgetfulness in women within 3 to 4 days after delivery. Generally it is temporary, and most will recover within 1 to 2 days. Although there are differences in degree or symptoms, many women have experienced postpartum depression. Some symptoms are very mild, and even end in a short time without noticing them. According to statistics, they account for 80% of new mothers.

    For most people, postpartum depression is only a temporary symptom and does not require treatment. But there is also the possibility of recurrence, which lasts for 1 to 2 years and develops into depression. Postpartum depression is a more serious symptom than postpartum depression, and it affects about one in ten new mothers. The symptoms are bad mood, tiredness, headache and general aches. Some ordinary things in life will become more and more unbearable, sadness and tears, careless dressing, reluctance to eat, and even children do not want to take care of them. In severe cases, suicide may occur, and of course many people will heal themselves.

    Simulate fetus and pregnant uterus

    Puerperal psychosis

    Puerperal psychosis is a common disease in the perinatal period. As the pressure of social competition increases, the disease is still on the rise.

    The clinical manifestations of puerperal psychosis are diverse. Symptoms such as mania, depression, schizophrenia, and neurological disorders can all appear, but no matter what type it is, it usually has a sudden onset. The symptoms are disturbances of consciousness and hallucinations. The main reason is that the condition of the disease is changeable, and this often causes the family members to be unaware of it, resulting in unforeseen accidents.

    This is the most serious form of postpartum depression, and only 1 in 1,000 new mothers suffers from this symptom. This symptom usually occurs soon after delivery and is very serious, lasting from several weeks to several months. Symptoms include extreme excitement, confusion, feelings of hopelessness and shame, insomnia, paranoia, delusions or hallucinations, hyperactivity, rapid speech, or mania. Postpartum psychosis requires immediate medical treatment because it increases the risk of suicide and harm to the baby.

    Caesarean section

    Advantages of Caesarean section:

    1. For some reason, it is absolutely impossible to give birth from the vagina, performing a caesarean section can save the life of mother and baby.

    2. The indications for caesarean section are clear, and the anesthesia and operation are generally smooth.

    3. If an elective caesarean section is performed, the operation is performed before the contractions begin, which can save the mother from suffering.

    4. If there are other diseases in the abdominal cavity, they can also be treated together, such as ovarian tumors or subserosal uterine fibroids can be removed at the same time.

    5. For conditions that are not suitable for keeping the uterus, such as severe infection, incomplete uterine rupture, multiple uterine fibroids, etc., the uterus can also be removed at the same time.

    6. Due to the improvement of the safety of cesarean section in recent years, many pregnancy complications and complications of pregnancy aborted pregnancy, clinicians chose cesarean section to reduce the impact of complications and complications on mothers and children.

    Advantages of normal delivery:

    1. It can reduce complications and trauma of parturient surgery.

    2. Can enhance mother-child communication and cooperation.

    3. The fetus is naturally squeezed through the birth canal, which can discharge the amniotic fluid accumulated in the lung interstitium and avoid the neonatal "wet lung" syndrome.

    Dystocia factor

    Normal delivery depends on the four major factors of fertility, birth canal, fetus and psychology. If any of the above factors is abnormal, the fetus cannot be delivered through the vagina, and it is necessary to use midwifery technology or cesarean section to complete the delivery process. Called "dystocia".

    1: Productivity

    The force that the fetus and its pregnant appendages are forced out of the uterus is called productive force, which is the force of uterine contraction (uterine contraction) that we often talk about. The contraction force of the abdominal wall muscles and diaphragm muscles (abdominal pressure) Strength), and the contractility of the levator ani muscle, these three forces together form the force of production, of which uterine contraction is the most important factor. Therefore, we can often hear some words from medical staff during labor, such as "regular contractions", "irregular contractions", "contraction duration is too short", "not exerting force", "not using enough force" Wait, I'm describing normal or abnormal productivity.

    2: Birth canal

    The birth canal is the passage through which the fetus is delivered, which is what we often call the pelvis. It is divided into the bony birth canal and the soft birth canal. The "pelvis" we usually talk about refers to the bony birth canal. The size and shape of the pelvis are closely related to childbirth.

    The pelvis of most Chinese women is normal. The main factor for dystocia is that the pelvis and the fetus are too large or the position of the fetal head is abnormal.

    3: Fetus

    The fetus is another key factor in determining whether or not a dystocia can be delivered, depending on the size of the fetus, the position of the fetus and the presence or absence of malformations.

    A fetus weighing more than 4000 grams is called a giant baby. During delivery, when the fetus has a large diameter of the fetal head, although the pelvic measurement is normal, the fetal head and the pelvis may be relatively narrow and cause dystocia due to the disproportion of the fetal head and pelvis. Some fetuses are not very heavy, but the position of the fetal head can also cause dystocia.

    Such cases can often be seen in clinical practice. The fetal head still cannot drop into the pelvis but is in a floating fetal head state near the expected date of delivery or after delivery. In such a situation, beware of the disproportionate fetal head and pelvis which may cause difficulty in delivery.

    4: Psychology

    It must be realized that in addition to the productivity, birth canal, and fetus, the factors affecting delivery are also the mental and psychological factors of the expectant mother.

    Most of the first childbirth is a long and painful process. Severe pain, unfamiliar and lonely environment in the delivery room, etc., will increase the fear and anxiety of the expectant mother and make the birth process abnormal.

    Oral delivery and lateral cut

    When pregnant women give birth, the mucosal folds in the vaginal inner layer are fully unfolded, and the middle muscle layer is fully expanded so that the fetus can leave the uterine body, pass through the vagina, and descend into the world.

    Although the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the vagina are conducive to the smooth delivery of the fetus, in fact, when the fetal head with a diameter of about 10 cm is delivered, if there is no help from a midwife doctor to protect the perineum, then there will definitely be a lot of maternal perineum. Lacerations of varying degrees. Once a laceration occurs, it will leave different degrees of sequelae after delivery. For example, some parturients suffer from uterine prolapse due to severe damage to the vagina and perineum, and even lacerations to the anal sphincter and rectum, causing fecal incontinence, which is very painful. If the episiotomy can be done in time, the above-mentioned sequelae will not occur, and it will be beneficial to the mother and the fetus. Clinically, women with the following conditions need to undergo episiotomy.

    1. Poor perineum elasticity, narrow vaginal opening or inflammation or edema in the perineum, it is estimated that severe perineal tears will inevitably occur when the fetus is delivered.

    2. The fetus is large, the position of the fetal head is not correct, and the labor force is not strong, the fetal head is blocked in the perineum.

    3. For older women over 35 years of age, or with high-risk pregnancies such as heart disease or pregnancy-induced hypertension, in order to reduce maternal physical exertion, shorten the delivery process, and reduce the threat of childbirth to the mother and baby, when the fetal head drops to the perineum At that time, it is necessary to do episiotomy.

    4. The uterine orifice has been opened and the fetal head is low, but the fetus has obvious hypoxia, the fetus's heart rate has abnormal changes, or the heartbeat rhythm is uneven, and the amniotic fluid is cloudy or mixed with meconium.

    5. When using forceps to assist in delivery.

    Everything is divided into two. The perineum is close to the vagina and behind the anus, with many bacteria. Therefore, the perineal incision is not a sterile operation. Moreover, there are many bacteria in the vagina. If the membranes are ruptured prematurely, the labor process is prolonged, and the vagina and perineum are usually inflamed, edema, etc., the incision in the vagina may heal poorly. In addition, postpartum defecation and lochia discharge can also make the incision contaminated and cause inflammation. Therefore, after the perineum incision, the local area should be kept clean and hygienic, and clean water should be used immediately after each bowel movement to avoid contamination and injury.

    Preparation before delivery

    Clothes and socks: 34 cotton underwear; 23 breastfeeding bras or large bras, and 23 vests; your own pajamas, preferably with open chest; 3 pairs of underpants for spring and autumn seasons; 1 corset; for outside wear 1 piece of long thermal jacket; 1 pair of cotton slippers; if it is winter, add 2 pairs of cotton socks.

    Baby products; baby moisturizing oil and baby diaper cream, baby powder; 1 pack of absorbent cotton, paper urine



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