Correct care after anorectal surgery plays a vital role in wound healing and reducing complications. Do not focus on surgery and neglect care. Some operations are very successful. Improper postoperative care will lead to slow wound healing and complications. Common anal operations mainly refer to hemorrhoids, anal fistulas, anal fissures, perianal abscesses, etc. The following mainly talk about the precautions after these operations:
1. Postoperative diet
On the postoperative day, if lumbar anesthesia is used for 6 hours after surgery, a liquid diet can be used; if local anesthesia is adopted, a small amount of semi-liquid diet such as noodles can be used. Don't eat fat and greasy food, don't eat cold foods such as fruits, don't drink honey and beverages, to avoid flatulence and diarrhea.
On the first day after surgery, you can eat a semi-liquid diet.
On the second day after surgery, you can eat normally. But avoid hot foods such as spicy, lamb, and dog meat.
Within 15 days after surgery, in order to maintain smooth stools, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, and eat more nutritious and digestible foods, such as chicken soup, fish soup, lean meat, etc.
After hemorrhoids and anal fissure, alcohol and spicy food must be absent for 2-3 months.
Anal fistulas and abscesses must abstain from alcohol and spicy food for six months.
2. Postoperative activities
If local anesthesia is taken, stay in bed on the day of the operation;
If you take spinal or sacral anesthesia, you need to lie down for 6 hours;
During the period when the wound has not completely healed (within 1 month), appropriate walking activities are available.
Within 15 days after surgery, do not bear weight (such as water, mopping the floor, etc.), do not have sex, do not sit for a long time and squat.
Do not do strenuous exercise, do not ride a bicycle, or do heavy physical work within 1-3 months after surgery.
Three, postoperative urine
After the operation, the urine cannot be discharged normally due to anesthesia, pain or anal discomfort. The patient does not need to be nervous and can apply heat to the lower abdomen. After the anesthetic dissipates and the pain or swelling feels relieved, the urine can be discharged normally, such as postoperative urination. When the swelling cannot be discharged, the doctor on duty should be notified to temporarily solve the urinary problem by catheterization.
Control the bowel movement for 24 hours after surgery, and defecate on the second day after surgery. In order to avoid dry stools, you can properly use intestinal laxatives. Don't squat for long when you have a bowel movement. 2-3 minutes is better. After the stool, wash with warm water and take a Chinese medicine bath. The water temperature should be suitable for the sitz bath, and the sitz bath can be used for 10 minutes. Sitting for a long time will cause wound edema. If the stool is dry and can not be discharged normally, use kaisailu or enema instead of excessive force.
Fourth, postoperative pain and stool bleeding
The use of fine surgery and long-term anesthesia can minimize pain and even be painless.
On the postoperative day, a small number of patients with obvious pain can be relieved with analgesic pumps and analgesics. For severe ones, the doctor on duty can be informed to give analgesic injections to relieve pain.
Slight pain during bowel movements is normal, and it can be relieved by washing and applying medicine after bowel movements.
A small amount of blood dripping or blood on the toilet paper is normal when you have stool. If the blood flow is not stopped or a large amount of blood clots are discharged, seek medical attention immediately.
5. Dressing change after operation
The dressing is changed on the second day after the operation until the wound is fully healed; the dressing change after the operation is mainly to clean the wound, prevent infection, detect and treat abnormal wound proliferation, and prevent bridge healing of the wound.
6. Wound secretions
There will be secretions from the wound after anal surgery. This is a self-cleaning phenomenon. Patients should not worry that the wound is purulent. Postoperative hemorrhoids and anal fissures last about 15 days; anal fistulas and abscesses last about 15-30 days.
Seven, other matters after surgery
1. Patients with constipation should drink more soup, eat more fruits and vegetables, and supplement with laxative drugs.
2. For patients with chronic colitis, the diet should be light, not cold and greasy food, and it is advisable to control stool 1-2 times a day.
3. About 7-10 days after the operation, the hemorrhoids fall off, and the anus may feel swollen and feel like a stool. A little blood should be dripped. At this time, secondary bleeding should be prevented, rest, and no strenuous activities are allowed to prevent constipation.
4. A small amount of bleeding is normal. If there is a large amount of bleeding, immediately notify the doctor on duty or come to the hospital for treatment.
5. Eat more light and easy-to-digest foods to keep stool smooth. Do not hold your breath and force your bowel movements.
6. After going to the toilet, take a Chinese medicine bath and fumigation to keep the anus clean and hygienic.
8. Measures to prevent recurrence
Article 1: Do not squat and stand for a long time
Especially the toilet time should be short. It is better to control the stool time within 2-3 minutes each time. Do not look at your mobile phone, smoke, or read a book in the toilet. Squatting for too long can easily induce hemorrhoids, constipation, and even prolapse. Do not sit and stand for a long time at work. Prolonged sitting and standing will lead to poor blood circulation in the anus, leading to hemorrhoids, anal fistulas, anal fistulas, abscesses and other diseases.
Article 2: Keep the stool smooth
Develop good bowel habits and maintain smooth bowel movements. Patients with constipation should usually pay attention to dietary regulation and take laxative drugs. If dryness is difficult to eliminate, do not use excessive force. Use Kaisailu or intestinal drugs. It is also necessary to prevent diarrhea. Stool multiple times a day is also a factor in inducing anal diseases such as hemorrhoids and abscesses.
Article 3: Keep the anus clean
Develop the habit of washing the anus with water after defecation and keeping the anus clean can reduce the occurrence of many anal diseases.
Article 4: Precautions for diet
Patients with internal hemorrhoid hemorrhage and enteritis are particularly sensitive to alcohol and hot peppers. They must abstain from alcohol and eat less spicy food. Patients with perianal eczema should also eat less seafood, shrimp and other foods with high protein content of the opposite sex.
Article 5: Insist on doing levator ani exercises
For prolapsed hemorrhoids, anal fistulas and perianal abscesses, often do levator anus exercises, which can improve the blood circulation in the anus, restore and strengthen the anal sphincter function, and reduce the occurrence of hemorrhoids.