Transfer from Dr. Tan Zhen
— The story of the patient Aunt Li
Aunt Li is a 60-year-old retired cadre who pays great attention to health. But recently she found that she always had blood in her stools. Considering that I have had old problems with hemorrhoids for many years, I bought a hemorrhoid cream to solve the problem based on years of experience. However, in the past few days, the situation has not improved, and new problems have appeared. Not only will there be mucus outflow during the week, but the bowel pattern has also changed, and there is always a feeling of incomplete bowel movements. Not only that, she always feels that she has no appetite for eating, and she loses a lot of weight in one month. At this time, Aunt Li went to the hospital for an investigation, and she was shocked. She said it was "rectal cancer" and needed a "big operation". Aunt Li wondered, how could she, who had always been healthy, got rectal cancer?
1. Bowel cancer not to be underestimated
When bloody stools occur in life, most people first think about hemorrhoids, instead of going to the hospital, they buy topical medicines and apply them. It is this process that ignores rectal cancer. I didn't think of seeking medical treatment until more serious symptoms appeared, and the condition was already very serious. How to identify colorectal cancer symptoms that are easily overlooked and confused?
Hemorrhoids bleeding: blood vessel bleeding, like "water pipe leaking", the amount of bleeding is large and the blood is bright red.
Intestinal cancer bleeding: It is bleeding on the erosional surface, just like "wall leakage", the amount of bleeding is small, the blood is dark red, accompanied by egg white or pus-like mucus. At the same time, the repeated stimulation of bowel cancer tumors makes patients feel incomplete defecation, leading to changes in defecation habits, such as alternating constipation and diarrhea, and increased frequency. And due to tumor consumption, it can lead to loss of appetite and weight loss.
Some patients with chronic enteritis also "treat on their own" when they have similar symptoms, and their psychology always thinks that cancer is unlikely, so it is easy to delay the disease.
Among the nearly 1,000 cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed and treated by Professor Fu Chuangang each year, nearly 80% of the patients are misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids, enteritis, etc. after symptoms such as blood in the stool and increased stool frequency. The treatment is delayed for 3-6 months, and the value is missed. Early treatment time.
It is recommended that patients should consult a specialist for diagnosis and treatment in time when the above symptoms occur, and high-risk groups should undergo colonoscopy as soon as possible.
Patients can't help asking, which groups are high-risk groups?
2. Bowel cancer that cannot be ignored
How close is bowel cancer to us?
In recent years, with the improvement of living standards, the increasing trend of population aging and the westernization of dietary structure, the incidence of colorectal cancer is on the rise. It currently ranks third in domestic malignant tumors, and has reached second in developed areas such as Shanghai. Nevertheless, the incidence rate is still increasing at a rate of 4.71% per year, far exceeding the international level. Usually there are more males than females, but females increase at a faster rate, and their risk increases with age, usually speeding up after the age of 40, and rising linearly after the age of 50.
What kind of people are "susceptible" to bowel cancer?
Years of research believe that the incidence of bowel cancer is the result of the synergistic effect of environment, diet, lifestyle and genetic factors. The following factors are generally considered to be risk factors for colorectal cancer:
A family history of colorectal cancer refers to a group of people whose immediate family members have the incidence of colorectal cancer, involving more than two generations of aggravation. In other words, if one of the close relatives has the disease, the risk of the disease is doubled, and more relatives have this cancer. The danger is greater. In addition, those who are younger than 50 years old have a significantly higher risk of disease in their offspring, and the probability is about 20 times higher than that of ordinary people.
Common chronic inflammation, polyps, and adenomas of the intestine can develop into intestinal cancer. The carcinogenesis rate of chronic ulcerative colitis with a medical history of up to 20 years can reach 20%. Crohn’s disease is lower than that, but 4-20 times higher than that of the general population; 15%-40% of colon cancer originates from multiple polyps in the colon , The time is at least 1 year; the cancer rate of adenoma exceeds 40%. In addition, some intestinal parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis and amoeba also have the risk of cancer.
The folks often say that "the better you eat, the more likely you are to get bowel cancer." This argument is not unreasonable. The incidence of bowel cancer is closely related to high-fat, meat and animal protein diets. Generally, the concentration of fecal bile acid in patients with bowel cancer is higher than that of normal people. Cholic acid is a cancer-promoting agent that can stimulate the occurrence of bowel tumors. High-fat diet can greatly increase the concentration of bile acid in the body. In addition, the lack of dietary fiber rich in fruits and vegetables is also a risk factor for colon cancer.
The incidence of colorectal cancer among workers with a certain intensity is significantly lower than that of workers who have been sitting for a long time. At the same time, irregular bowel movements, smoking, overweight and obesity are also risk factors for colorectal cancer.
3. It is not difficult to "prevent" bowel cancer
At present, the most effective treatment is expected to be radical surgery, but it is difficult to perform the operation smoothly. It is often at an advanced stage when the patient comes to see a doctor because of obvious symptoms, which often leads to a shorter survival period after surgery. However, studies have found that 90% of patients with early bowel cancer can achieve long-term survival after radical surgery. Therefore, "early prevention, early detection, and early treatment" has become the key to a good prognosis for bowel cancer. So how to reduce the risk of bowel cancer as much as possible?