Gastrointestinal cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the world. According to statistics, in China, the incidence of gastric cancer ranks second, and the mortality rate ranks first; the incidence of colorectal cancer ranks third, and the death rate ranks fourth; people often talk about "cancer" discoloration. With the acceleration of the process of social industrialization and the acceleration of the pace of life, the population of gastrointestinal tumors is developing from the middle-aged to younger age. The prevention and treatment strategy proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) is: 1/3 of cancer can be prevented, 1/3 of cancer can be cured if diagnosed early, and 1/3 of cancer can prolong life by alleviating pain, so how to do it for gastrointestinal How about early diagnosis, early treatment, and even prevention of cancer?
Mr. Wang, who is just in his early forties, suffers from "chronic gastritis". He is busy with work and entertainment. Whenever he has an upset stomach, he takes "acid tablets" bought in the pharmacy for a few days. After a formal examination in the hospital, I found that my stool turned black after a dinner and drink with a friend. Then I went to a large hospital for an examination. The result of gastroscopy and CT examination was that the diagnosis of gastric cancer was advanced. My wife felt like a bolt from the blue when she learned that she was very painful. Similarly, Mr. Li, who is about to retire this year, had constipation many years ago. It usually takes five to seven days to relieve his stool. He has been checked in the hospital in the early stage of onset. He will usually take "fruit guide tablets" or " "Kaisailu" solved the stool. In the past few months, he began to alternate with constipation and diarrhea, accompanied by blood in the stool. Going to the hospital for treatment, the diagnosis results were stunned for everyone present. The results showed that there was a tumor at the lower end of Li's rectum about 5 cm from the anal opening, and his pathological diagnosis was rectal adenocarcinoma.
In clinical diagnosis and treatment, there are many cases that have encountered such cases and lost the precious opportunity of "early diagnosis and early treatment". The price paid is self-evident, such as the decrease in the 5-year survival rate, the increase in the recurrence and metastasis rate, and the late stage. Obstruction, pain, wasting, the appearance of cachexia, the imminent death, etc., so the early detection of gastrointestinal tumors is very important. For patients, it is necessary to be alert to some bad signs of the body in order to achieve early diagnosis and treatment. Usually pay attention to some discomfort symptoms of the digestive system, especially those that recur or are chronic diseases that you have. The symptoms are changed. Medically called precancerous lesions, such as gastric cancer precancerous lesions: ① Chronic atrophic gastritis, ②gastric polyps, ③remnant gastritis, ④pernicious anemia with significant stomach atrophy, ⑤a few gastric ulcers; precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer include: ①chronic ulcerative colitis, ②colorectal adenoma.
The early symptoms of gastric cancer are not very obvious, so many people are easy to confuse the symptoms of gastric cancer with the symptoms of gastric ulcer, so how to correctly distinguish these two completely different diseases, but there are often many similarities in clinical manifestations , Especially "ulcer type gastric cancer"? In order not to delay the disease, not only the doctor should master the ability to distinguish between the two, but also the patient's best to understand some relevant knowledge in order to be vigilant and try to achieve early detection and early treatment of cancer. Facts have proved that as long as you carefully observe, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer can still be distinguished. Age and course of disease Gastric ulcers are more common in young adults. Ninety percent of patients have epigastric pain and have periodic attacks. Each pain lasts for days, weeks or even months, and then relieves for a certain period of time, and then attacks again , Often delayed for many years. Gastric cancer is more common in middle-aged and elderly people over the age of 40. Early gastric cancer generally has no obvious discomfort, but when symptoms such as upper abdominal pain appear, it becomes progressively worse, the disease progresses rapidly, and the course of the disease is short. In terms of the regularity of pain, the pain of gastric ulcers is mostly closely related to diet, that is, starting half an hour after a meal, the pain lasts for several hours, there is a burning sensation, and then gradually disappears until the above rhythm is found again after the next meal. Pain can be relieved by taking alkaline drugs. The pain of gastric cancer is irregular and has nothing to do with eating. After eating, the pain can be aggravated or reduced; the nature of the pain is variable, which can be dull or severe, and often feels full.
The early symptoms of colorectal cancer can include abdominal distension, discomfort, and indigestion symptoms, and then changes in bowel habits and blood in the stool. Most of them are manifested as increased bowel movements, stool irregularities, and mild abdominal pain before defecation. Mucous stools or mucopurulent bloody stools. It is worth noting that some benign diseases such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, intestinal polyps, dysentery, colitis, gastric ulcers, etc., often have blood in the stool and are easily mixed with colorectal cancer, causing confusion. According to statistics, rectal cancer There are not a few patients who are misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids in the early stage. Although they are bloody in their stools, they are actually different. Patients with colorectal cancer may suffer from abdominal distension and abdominal pain due to intestinal obstruction. When the cancer ruptures, the stool will contain pus and blood, and the stool and blood will be mixed. However, the stools of patients with hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and intestinal polyps are not mixed with blood, but attached to the surface of the stool, and the blood is bright red or relatively fresh. The stools of patients with gastric ulcers are significantly different from those of patients with enteritis, and they often have black or tarry stools.
In addition to the different stools, the accompanying symptoms are also different. When patients with colorectal cancer excrete thick bloody mucus, their bowel habits will change, sometimes with diarrhea and sometimes with constipation. This is because the growth of the cancer affects the normal physiological functions of the intestine, which can be caused by cramps and contractions. In patients with hemorrhoids, protrusions can be seen in the anus during defecation, which is medically called hemorrhoid prolapse. Patients with anal fissure often have obvious pain, and anal burning sensation during defecation. Patients with intestinal polyps do not have pain in their abdomen. People with dysentery will have a fever, abdominal pain and severe abdominal pain. Patients with ulcers are accompanied by long-term, periodic pain in the upper abdomen and frequent belching, acid reflux, nausea and vomiting.
Although, from the perspective of "symptoms", non-medical professionals are required to detect tumors early, and the requirements are higher, but the development of modern medical technology and the use of various inspection methods that are more and more convenient provide a strong guarantee; social material The development of conditions and the improvement of quality of life require health to be guaranteed. As long as the majority of patients pay attention to their physical and mental health, they can move towards the goal of prevention, such as paying attention to diet, correcting bad habits, eating less pickled, smoked, fried food, and eating more fresh vegetables Fruits, quit smoking and drinking, stay happy, avoid depression, etc.; once the above symptoms occur, go to the hospital in time. The current advanced examination methods are almost painless, such as painless electronic gastroscopy, electronic enteroscopy, and ultrasound endoscopy. X-ray dual-contrast imaging, CT examination, fecal occult blood test, tumor index test, and the latest PET/CT imaging technology can display the body's abnormal metabolic lesions and their anatomical structures in a multi-dimensional and three-dimensional manner, providing the most advanced modernization for early detection of tumors means. I believe that as long as both doctors and patients work together, the goal of early diagnosis and treatment of tumors will not be difficult to achieve.
(Gastrointestinal Tumor Surgery Gu Jiming)