According to the latest data from the World Health Organization, the global annual incidence of colorectal cancer ranks third among all tumors, with 910,000 new cases and 570,000 deaths each year. Similarly, in China, with the improvement of living standards and changes in lifestyles, the incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing year by year. However, it is a pity that the early diagnosis rate of colorectal cancer in China is only 10% to 20%, and more than 80% is already at the time of diagnosis. Middle and late! The incidence of colorectal cancer is closely related to many unhealthy lifestyles, such as diet (high fat, high protein, low fiber), lack of exercise, work pressure, environmental pollution, etc.
The 65-year-old Mr. Wang didn't care about hemorrhoids because he found occasional blood in his stool six months ago. Buy hemorrhoid cream for treatment. After 1 week of treatment, the blood in the stool was significantly reduced. For the next 3 months, he continued to take the medicine, but the blood in the stool was frequent and less frequent, and he had tenesmus and he went to see a doctor. Asking Mr. Wang that his father was suffering from colon cancer. Mr. Wang underwent colonoscopy and found that the rectum was 250px away from the anus with a circular cavity mass accompanied by erosion and bleeding. Pathological biopsy confirmed rectal adenocarcinoma. The main symptom of Mr. Wang is blood in the stool, because the main symptom of hemorrhoids is also blood in the stool, which is a common disease, so it is easy to delay the diagnosis. The incidence of rectal cancer in China is relatively high. Digital rectal examination can find most rectal tumors. Colonoscopy and pathological biopsy are more reliable methods and should be checked in time. For patients with family history, it is more valuable.
37-year-old Mr. Li found positive for fecal occult blood during physical examination, and the doctor recommended colonoscopy. But because the patient heard that colonoscopy was too painful, he gave up colonoscopy. In the second year of physical examination, the fecal occult blood test was still positive. Under the repeated supervision of the doctor, the colonoscopy was performed. It was found that the rectum and sigmoid colon had multiple small polyps, and the ascending colon was 2*75px tumors. After that, all were removed under endoscopy. Polyps, pathology suggests early cancer, no chemotherapy after surgery. Since Mr. Li's follow-up, there is no sign of tumor recurrence. Both of Mr. Li's examinations for fecal occult blood were positive. Because of his fear of colonoscopy and the patient's young age, he failed to draw full attention. Under the repeated supervision of doctors, we finally found and treated early. If the colonoscopy is not performed in the second year, it may not be discovered until the late stage, and the chance of cure will be lost.
The third example is Charlie Bell, the former boss of McDonald's, who died of rectal cancer at the age of 44. Some media pointed out that if he can divide his keen tentacles on the McDonald's market into health awareness, he will definitely not miss a rectal and colonoscopy. Early diagnosis and treatment may extend his life for ten years or even longer.
Data shows that the rising trend of tumor mortality in the United States was curbed in the 1990s, mainly because of the promotion of colorectal cancer screening, which enabled many colorectal cancer patients to be detected and treated early. The status quo in China is that residents generally lack knowledge of colorectal cancer prevention and treatment; clinicians focus on clinical discovery and seldom pay attention to prevention; the country has no specific prevention and treatment guidelines for colorectal cancer; census methods have not been popularized and recognized; medical security system has not Can cover.
Among all tumors, colorectal cancer is the easiest to prevent. From intestinal polyps to adenomas, and finally to adenocarcinoma, this precancerous lesion takes about 10-15 years. During this period, timely detection and early treatment can prevent the occurrence of cancer. Some symptoms are closely related to colorectal cancer, such as mucous and pus-blooded stools, changes in bowel habits, alternating diarrhea and constipation, abdominal pain and bloating, anemia and weight loss, and low-grade fever. The diagnosis of colorectal cancer needs to be differentiated from many diseases, including chronic colitis, appendicitis, peptic ulcer, cholecystitis, dysentery, internal hemorrhoids, and anal fissure. And colon cancer is often in the middle and late stages when symptoms appear, and the biggest reason is insufficient knowledge!
Colorectal cancer is closely related to the six major groups of people and belongs to high-risk groups. First, people over 40 years of age with high incidence of colorectal cancer have gastrointestinal symptoms, such as blood in the stool, mucus in the stool, and abdominal pain. Second, people with a history of colorectal cancer. Third, immediate family members who have a family history of colorectal cancer. Fourth, those with a history of pelvic radiotherapy. Fifth, immediate family members who have a family history of colorectal polyps. Sixth, patients with precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer, such as colorectal adenoma, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and schistosomiasis. For these six types of high-risk groups, we recommend that from the age of 40, colorectal cancer screening should be performed every three to five years. If there is a family history, it is recommended to go to a large cancer center for diagnosis and treatment. For people who are not at high risk, it is recommended to have colorectal cancer screening every five to ten years from the age of 50.
In addition, the following methods are also of great significance for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. First of all, the initial screening of the fecal occult blood test, if it is positive, colonoscopy is an important method for early detection of colorectal cancer, and it is also the current international screening method. Secondly, serum oncology indicators, such as CEA, carbohydrate antigen and so on. Third, digital rectal examination is a simple way to detect rectal cancer early. Finally, colonoscopy + pathological diagnosis is the gold standard for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, and it is the most direct and effective method of all methods.
The staging of colorectal cancer has an important relationship with survival rate. The five-year survival rate for early colorectal cancer can reach more than 90% after treatment, while the five-year survival rate for middle-advanced colorectal cancer is 25%-65%, and the five-year survival rate for advanced colorectal cancer is only less than 5%.
Eating habits are closely related to the incidence of colorectal cancer. The European Cancer Prevention Organization and the International Nutrition Science Alliance also made the following recommendations: 1. Reduce the intake of fatty foods (including animal oil and vegetable oil), and fish, poultry, lean meat, and low-fat dairy products to replace meat with excessive animal oil. Use boiled and steamed food instead of fried food. 2. Increase the intake of green leafy and root vegetables and fruits. 3. Eat more starch and fiber foods. 4. Maintain a proper weight. 5. Daily salt intake is less than 5 grams. 6. Eat more fresh foods, eat less pickled and smoked foods, and avoid moldy foods. Reduce alcoholic beverages.