Speaking of colorectal cancer, many people think it is far away from us. After reading the following two cases, your understanding may change.
Miss Zhang, 27 years old, the cute baby is not yet one year old. Recently, the stool is often bloody. Because he has had hemorrhoids in the past, Miss Zhang thought that hemorrhoids got worse after pregnancy, so she didn't take it to heart. Until recently, my stomach became more and more swollen and I couldn't pass stool for a few days, so I went to the hospital for examination. It turned out that she not only had serious hemorrhoids, but also advanced rectal cancer. The intestinal tube was completely blocked by tumor tissue. The surgery found that the pelvic cavity had metastasized. Only the abdominal wall fistula and permanent artificial anus defecation. The quality of life and life expectancy were greatly reduced.
He is 76 years old. He has very strong bones, but his stomach is not very good. He often has abdominal distension, constipation, and diarrhea. He didn't care about it at first. Old people have poor digestion and normal constipation. But recently the belly is getting bigger and bigger. At first I thought it was a blessing for the body. Later, Old He felt something was wrong. The stool was not resolved for half a month, and the usual laxatives did not work at all. I wanted to take some more medicine, but I went to the hospital for a checkup after my son insisted on it. Colonoscopy, colon cancer! The operation revealed that the liver had metastasized, and the obstructed colon was unexpectedly thick!
The experience of Ms. Zhang and Mr. He is regrettable. In fact, most patients with colorectal cancer have experienced similar experiences, and even experienced the process from misdiagnosis to diagnosis. The true early detection is very rare.
Getting closer to colorectal cancer in understanding
Although 40 to 60 years old is the age of high incidence of tumors, cancer patients under 30 years old account for 10%-20%, and have the characteristics of declining age. The literature reports that the youngest are only 9 months old. According to reports, the age of onset of colorectal cancer in China is about 12-18 years earlier than that in Europe and the United States, and rectal cancer is more common, and more than 80% of rectal cancers are located below 8cm from the anus. Early diagnosis can be made only by digital rectal examination. But people often overlook this.
The development of colorectal cancer is relatively slow, there are no obvious symptoms in the early stage, and the later symptoms are mainly manifested in the following aspects:
1. Repeated or alternating symptoms such as frequent defecation, diarrhea, constipation, tenesmus, anal bulging and discomfort. Gastroenteritis only appears occasionally.
2. Because the tumor is ruptured, the stool will appear bloody, which can easily be mistaken for "hemorrhoids." In fact, bleeding from hemorrhoids usually occurs at the end of the stool, and the amount is small, mostly bright red, and the bleeding is attached to the surface of the stool. On the contrary, tumor bleeding often continues the entire process of defecation, and the color is mostly dark red. If the tumor is located at a higher position, the blood often mixes with the stool and is jam-like, sometimes even mucus and blood.
3. With the aggravation of abdominal distension and abdominal discomfort, the phenomenon of paroxysmal abdominal pain, constipation, and thinning of the stool (such as pencil-like or sheep dung-like) will gradually appear. Difficulty defecation and intestinal obstruction are the late manifestations of tumors, indicating that the tumor has occupied most of the intestinal tract, and conventional laxatives are not effective. However, taking laxatives for senile and habitual constipation can play a certain role.
4. The appearance of anemia and weight loss is mostly the result of long-term tumor consumption, suggesting a poor prognosis.
Of course, suffering from colorectal cancer is not without medicine, and early surgical treatment should be sought. The current "total mesorectal resection" has reduced the postoperative recurrence rate of tumors to less than 10%. The low-position and ultra-low-position anus-preserving surgery with double stapling has been mature, and tumors above 4cm from the anus are likely to be anus-preserving. Moreover, colorectal cancer is the most effective chemotherapy among gastrointestinal tumors. Regular regular chemotherapy can achieve important auxiliary effects. The 5-year survival rate after colon cancer surgery has reached about 70%, and rectal cancer can also be more than 50%. It can even reach more than 90%.
Farther and farther from colorectal cancer in reality
Like most tumors, the exact cause of colorectal cancer is still being explored, but the synergy of diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors is an important cause of cell mutations to develop into cancer.
It has been confirmed that a high-fat diet can produce a large amount of carcinogens during the digestion process. The incidence of colorectal cancer in high-fat diets is more than twice that of low-fat diets, and it is related to the food being rich in saturated fatty acids. Mediterranean residents and Eskimos have a very low incidence of colorectal cancer, which is closely related to their food fats derived from fish oil and olive oil (rich in unsaturated fatty acids); while people who eat red meat such as pork, beef or lamb as their main dishes are at risk Increased by more than 2 times, fish and chicken are relatively safer.
On the contrary, the dietary fiber known as the "scavenger" can resist the degradation of digestive enzymes in the body, increase the amount of feces, can dilute and adsorb carcinogens, improve the pH of the intestine, and inhibit the growth of tumor cells. The results of more than 60 independent studies by American scientists have shown that a diet high in dietary fiber can reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, and can reduce the risk of disease by up to 43.0%. As long as an average daily increase of 13g of fiber in foods can reduce the incidence of colon cancer in the United States by 31%; garlic can also keep us away from the threat of colon cancer. In addition, proper intake of trace elements selenium, zinc, calcium, iron and antioxidant vitamins A, C, E also has a certain protective effect on the occurrence of colorectal cancer.
A healthy lifestyle is also a magic weapon to stay away from colorectal cancer. Smoking, drinking, lack of exercise, and excessive obesity are all risk factors for colorectal tumors. The daily low-dose aspirin can not only reduce cardiovascular disease, but also reduce the occurrence of colorectal tumors.
Colorectal cancer has obvious familial clustering. One of the close relatives has the disease, and the chance of the disease is more than doubled. Although genetic genes are something we cannot change, it allows us to be vigilant and check regularly to achieve the purpose of early detection and early treatment. At the same time, colorectal cancer often favors patients with ulcerative colitis, polyps, adenomas and schistosomiasis. As long as the primary disease is actively treated and the precancerous lesions are eliminated, the troubles of colorectal cancer can be avoided.