Correct care after anal surgery plays a vital role in wound healing and reducing complications. Some operations are very successful, but improper postoperative care can lead to complications such as wound edema, infection, prolapse, poor drainage, slow healing, and false healing. In order for the patients to recover smoothly, we will explain the precautions for common anal operations such as hemorrhoids, anal fistulas, anal fissures, and perianal abscesses.
1. Diet and exercise, defecation
Surgery day: Patients with local anesthesia can eat normally, patients with spinal anesthesia can eat after 6 hours of lying supine, and patients with general anesthesia can eat after fully awake. Eat porridge, noodles, egg drop and other semi-liquid diet. Don't eat fat, greasy, spicy food, don't eat cold foods such as fruits, and don't drink honey and beverages to avoid flatulence and diarrhea. Bed rest is the main operation day.
The first day after the operation: eat a semi-liquid diet, take a proper walk, control bowel movements, fumigate the anus with Chinese medicine and change the dressing.
The second day after the operation: normal light diet, eat more crude fiber food, drink plenty of water, walk appropriately, control bowel movements, fumigate the anus with Chinese medicine and change the dressing. Oral intestines and laxatives at night, such as polyethylene glycol 4000 powder, hemp capsules, etc. help defecation.
3-20 days after surgery: You can defecate, clean the anus after defecation, change the dressing after fumigation and washing with Chinese medicine. The diet is based on light, crude fiber foods, nutritious and easily digestible foods, such as chicken soup, fish soup, lean meat, fish, duck, etc. Proper walks, do not bear weight (such as carrying water, mopping the floor, etc.), do not have sex, do not sit for a long time and squat.
Avoid alcohol and spicy food for 3 months after the operation, do not do strenuous exercise, do not ride a bicycle, and do not do heavy physical work.
The water temperature is appropriate during the fumigation and the time should be controlled. Patients with perianal abscess, anal fistula, and anal fissure can sit in a bath for 10 minutes, and patients with hemorrhoids can take 2 minutes. Squatting and sitting for a long time can cause wound edema.
Stools are difficult to pass, do not work hard, tell the doctor to deal with it, you can open the syrup or clean the enema.
The development of minimally invasive surgery and the construction of painless wards have significantly reduced postoperative pain. However, some patients are still suffering from severe illness and still have slight pain after surgery. Pain can be relieved by oral or intramuscular injection of analgesics. Slight pain in the anus during defecation is normal, and it can be relieved by timely washing and fumigation after defecation.
It is normal for the anal dressing to have a little bleeding within 24 hours after the operation. If the dressing is completely soaked or bleeding is heavy, please tell the doctor in time.
A small amount of blood dripping or blood on the toilet paper is normal when you have stool. If the blood flow does not stop or a large number of blood clots are discharged, tell the doctor immediately.
Patients undergoing hemorrhoid surgery should pay attention that 5-14 days after the operation is the hemorrhoid shedding period, do not dry and clump the stool, have a moderate amount of activity, and a small part of the hemorrhage is heavy, so you need to tell the doctor in time.
Four, anal bulge
On the day of surgery, most patients will have a feeling of bulging in the anus. If the urination is not smooth, the feeling of bulging will be even worse.
Anal swelling is related to surgical stimulation, oil gauze packing, and urinary discharge. It will be significantly reduced after more than ten hours after surgery.
There is a small amount of secretions in the anus after the operation, so the patient should not worry that the wound is purulent. Anal fistulas and abscesses have a lot of secretions in the first week, and then gradually decrease, which will last about 25-40 days. If accompanied by anal swelling, pain, fever, and chills, consider the possibility of wound infection.
6. Wound edema
Loose tissues around the anus, frequent squatting on the toilet after surgery, difficulty in urination, premature defecation, frequent defecation, all of which can easily lead to wound edema. Don’t worry too much if edema occurs. Correct the above factors and after treatment by a doctor, it will gradually decrease and disappear.