Common anorectal diseases include rectal polyps, anal prolapse, anal fissure, anal fistula, anal eczema, rectal cancer, anal papillary hypertrophy, and anal sinusitis. Although the symptoms displayed at the onset of the disease are similar, due to their different types, there are still certain differences, and patients should pay special attention.
Eight common symptoms of anorectal disease
1. Rectal polyps. It is a benign epithelial tumor formed by the localized hyperplasia of the rectal mucosa or submucosal glands. It can occur at any age and gender, single or multiple, and can occur anywhere in the intestine, but the rectum and sigmoid colon are most common , May have a family history for unknown reasons. The main symptoms are blood in the stool, prolapse and intestinal irritation, such as abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain, diarrhea, pus, blood, mucus, tenesmus, etc. The diagnosis can be confirmed by digital rectal examination and endoscopy.
2. Prolapse. It is the fall of the rectal mucosa that protrudes outside the anus, and the prolapsed part is in a ring shape. When the internal hemorrhoids prolapse, the prolapsed material is often at one or more places, mostly at 3, 7, and 11 points. If the prolapse is not very serious, it is difficult to distinguish between internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids during self-diagnosis, and they all appear as external anal lumps. However, hemorrhoid lumps are formed by blood stasis, which can be eliminated by anti-inflammatory, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis; prolapse is to send back the prolapsed part. If it is not serious, it can be reset by itself, and if it is serious, surgery is required.
3. Anal fissure. It refers to the crack or ulcer formed by the rupture of the transitional epithelium of the anal canal below the dentate line. There are many causes of anal fissure, but most of them are related to repeated infections, ulcers and dry stools around the anus, pain in the anus and blood in the stool during defecation. Anal fissures can be single or multiple. The former means that there is only one slit, and the latter can have more than two slits. Its clinical manifestations are pain, blood in the stool, and constipation. The pain of anal fissure is characterized by sharp pain like a knife cut during defecation. The pain is relieved after defecation, but after a while, it will produce continuous and unbearable pain, which lasts for several hours or even a day.
4. Anal fistula. It is the abbreviation of anorectal fistula. It is a fistula with one end opening in the anorectal wall and the other end opening in the perianal skin and covered with granulation tissue. However, in clinical practical applications, the sinus related to the anorectal canal is often included, which is called incomplete fistula or single port fistula. Anal fistula is a sequelae of purulent abscess caused by anal gland infection, which is caused by rupture of the abscess or after incision and drainage. The main manifestation of anal fistula is that there are sores on the skin around the anus, which constantly shed pus and blood. Its cause is inflammation of the rectum. Rectal inflammation is mostly caused by dry stool, anal fissure, and other infectious diseases. Anal fistula and hemorrhoids are easier to distinguish.
5. Anal eczema. It is an allergic and inflammatory perianal skin disease. It has the characteristics of pleomorphic damage, repeated attacks, and easy to become chronic. Symptoms are mainly severe itching in and around the anus; in addition, there are moist discomfort, pain, and other systemic symptoms such as indigestion, abdominal distension, constipation, and diarrhea. The pathogenic factors are chronic digestive system diseases, mental stress, endocrine dysfunction, and stimulation of external medicines and chemicals. During treatment, the primary disease should be cured, the predisposing factors should be improved and removed, and the underwear should be kept clean to avoid scratching.
6. Rectal cancer. It mostly occurs in the elderly, mainly manifested as blood in the stool, diarrhea or constipation, changes in the shape of the stool, and often intestinal irritation symptoms such as frequent stools and tenesmus. The cause is unknown. It is mostly related to chronic inflammation, malignant transformation of benign tumors, and dietary factors. Digital rectal examination can find masses, and pathological examination can confirm the diagnosis.
7. Anal nipple hypertrophy. It is caused by the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the anal papilla due to chronic inflammation. The small ones are like triangles or vertebrae, and the big ones are nipple-shaped and can be prolapsed. The surface is white skin, located on the dentate line, hard, small in shape, no bleeding, no varicose veins and hemorrhoids are not difficult to distinguish. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal inflammatory bleeding is mostly pus blood or mucus blood in the stool, blood mixed with stool, the diagnosis requires sigmoid colonoscopy.
8. Anal sinusitis. In acute inflammation, the anus is burning and painful, and there is a feeling of falling, and the pain is aggravated during defecation. In severe cases, even if there is no defecation, there is often short-term paroxysmal tingling. The pain can radiate to the buttocks and the back of the thigh. In the chronic remission period, there are almost no obvious symptoms, only a short-term slight pain in the anus after defecation. Stool often has a small amount of mucus or mucus often flows out before the stool, sometimes bloody.