Hemorrhoids are the most common anorectal disease. According to a survey conducted in China in 1997, the incidence of hemorrhoids is as high as 87.5%, which is close to the Chinese folk saying "nine hemorrhoids in ten people", and the incidence of women is slightly higher than that of men. There are two theories about the formation of hemorrhoids. One theory believes that hemorrhoids are formed by pathological tortuosity, expansion and blood stasis in the venous plexus under the mucosa of the rectum or under the anal canal. Another theory believes that there is a special structure formed by blood vessels, smooth muscle, elastic tissue and connective tissue under the mucous membrane of the rectum. It is called "anal cushion". Its function is to assist the tight closure of the anus, just like the rubber gasket of a faucet. Function: When the anal cushion is loosened, enlarged, or moved downward, it will be complicated by the expansion of venous plexus stasis, thereby forming hemorrhoids. These two theories are interrelated and complement each other.
So, what is the cause of hemorrhoids?
At present, most doctors at home and abroad believe that the main causes of hemorrhoids are the following seven aspects:
1. Anatomical reasons lead to the formation of hemorrhoids:
When a person is in a standing or sitting position, the anus and rectum are located in the lower part. Due to the pressure of gravity and organs, the upward venous return obstruction occurs. Rectal veins and their branches lack venous valves, blood is not easy to return, and it is easy to stasis. Its blood vessels are arranged in a special way, passing through the muscle layer at different heights, and are easily compressed by fecal mass, which affects blood return. The veins pass through the loose tissues of the submucosa, lack of stent fixation around them, and are easy to expand and buckle.
2. The genetic relationship causes hemorrhoids to form:
The vein wall is congenital weak, the tension is reduced, and it cannot tolerate the intravascular pressure, so it gradually expands; or the pelvic floor muscles are congenital relaxation, which weakens the support of the rectum and anal canal.
3. Occupational relationship causes hemorrhoids to form:
Standing or sitting for a long time, long-term weight-bearing and long travel will affect venous return, causing slow blood flow in the pelvic cavity and congestion of abdominal organs, causing excessive hemorrhoidal vein filling, decreased venous wall tension, and blood vessel stasis expansion. Or due to lack of exercise, the diet is too fine (lack of coarse grains), bowel movements are reduced, and stool descends slowly; or habitual constipation, fecal mass oppresses and stimulates the veins, causing local congestion and blood return obstacles, causing hemorrhoids to increase intravenous pressure and veins The wall resistance is reduced.
4. Local irritation and improper diet lead to the formation of hemorrhoids:
Constipation, diarrhea, excessive drinking, eating spicy foods, etc. can all stimulate the anus and rectum, congest the hemorrhoid venous plexus, affect the return of venous blood, and reduce the resistance of the vein wall.
5. The causes of increased anal vein pressure lead to the formation of hemorrhoids:
Cirrhosis of the liver, elevated portal pressure, cardiac insufficiency, etc., can cause congestion of the anal veins, increase the pressure, and affect the rectal venous blood return.
6. The causes of increased intra-abdominal pressure lead to the formation of hemorrhoids:
Intra-abdominal tumors, uterine tumors, ovarian tumors, prostatic hypertrophy, pregnancy (pregnancy), overeating, squatting in the toilet, etc. can increase intra-abdominal pressure and hinder venous blood return in the rectum and anus.
7. The causes of anal infection lead to the formation of hemorrhoids:
Acute and chronic infection (inflammation) of the hemorrhoidal venous plexus, the elastic tissue of the vein wall gradually becomes fibrotic and weakened, and the resistance is insufficient, resulting in the expansion of venous stasis; if combined with other causes, the varicose veins will eventually become more and more Heavy, resulting in hemorrhoids.