As the saying goes, "ten people nine hemorrhoids", it seems that hemorrhoids are a very common disease. However, experts say that many patients with blood in the stool are considered hemorrhoids, which often makes some bowel cancer patients miss the opportunity to treat. Blood in the stool may not only be a hemorrhoid, but also a manifestation of bowel cancer. In addition, with the enhancement of people's awareness of physical examination, the detection rate of intestinal polyps has greatly increased. Experts point out that bowel polyps do not represent bowel cancer, but most bowel cancers are transformed from bowel polyps. Therefore, patients with intestinal polyps should be treated in time and followed up regularly.
Be wary of colon cancer growing under the cover of "hemorrhoids"
The 58-year-old old man Li began to have blood in his stool six months ago. He has always believed that he has hemorrhoids. After I went to the pharmacy to buy the medicine myself, I didn't get any better, but the symptoms gradually got worse. So Mr. Li went to the hospital for colonoscopy recently, and found an irregular mass 3-4cm from the anus with ulceration on the surface and more necrotic tissue. After further pathological examination, he was diagnosed with rectal cancer. "Such patients are actually not uncommon," the expert said. "Many patients find that the first reaction of blood in the stool is hemorrhoids, but blood in the stool may also be a symptom of bowel cancer." Blood in the stool is a problem that people often encounter in life. It can be seen after dry stool, get angry, and drink alcohol. In fact, many anal diseases such as anal fissures, anal fistulas, rectal polyps, anorectal tumors, and even some systemic diseases such as leukemia and renal failure can cause blood in the stool. Some did not take it seriously and did not go to a regular hospital for scientific examination, which caused the disease to lose the best time for treatment.
So, what is the difference between hemorrhoids and blood in the stool caused by bowel cancer? According to experts, first of all, the characteristics of blood in the stool are different. Patients with hemorrhoids have blood in the stool, which is generally "passive" bleeding, which is blood on the surface of the stool, blood on the toilet paper after the stool, and blood in the stool is mostly bright red. But rectal cancer bleeding is "active" bleeding, because rectal cancer is often located higher than internal hemorrhoids, so when stool is stored in the rectum, it will be mixed with rectal cancer bleeding, causing the stool to be mixed with blood, and the blood color is often dark red Or jam-colored, or even black, sometimes the stool itself will contain mucus and pus.
Second, the accompanying symptoms are different. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins, so the blood is usually painless and intermittent, and sometimes a lump (vein mass) comes out from the anus. For prolapsed hemorrhoids, the fingers are very soft after pressing, and like veins in other parts of the body, they can be squashed or pushed back into the anus. If the internal hemorrhoids prolapse for a long time, there will be pain and induration. Rectal cancer, as a solid tumor, has a fixed location and a hard texture, which can cause stiffness and compression of the rectal wall, resulting in increased stool frequency, anal swelling, and bowel movements soon after defecation, but no stool or only a small amount of stool. If it grows further, it will also cause the rectal lumen to become narrow, or even partially block the rectum, which will lead to difficulty in defecation and thinning of the stool. A few patients will also experience abdominal pain and bloating due to rectal obstruction. Therefore, experts suggest that if there is persistent blood in the stool or positive stool occult blood test, colonoscopy should be performed in time to rule out colorectal tumors.
Can intestinal polyps become intestinal cancer?
Nowadays, the westernized diet, high-fat, high-protein, high-energy and low-fiber diets have largely contributed to the high incidence of colorectal polyps and even bowel cancer. Many people have also been informed of the existence of colorectal polyps after physical examinations. So, will polyps become colorectal cancer? Experts believe that the continued growth of polyps may become adenomas, and the continued development of adenomas may become cancer. Studies have shown that 95% of bowel cancers "evolve" step by step from intestinal polyps. Generally, this process may take 5-10 years. Although most intestinal polyps are benign, a small part of adenomas are cancerous. The malignant transformation rate is closely related to the size of the polyp. The malignant transformation rates of less than 1cm, 1-2cm, and greater than 2cm are 1% and 10, respectively. % And 35%. Villiform adenomas with a diameter of less than 2cm have a malignant transformation rate of 10%, and the malignant transformation rate of adenomas larger than 2cm is as high as 53%. It is especially necessary to be vigilant.
Experts point out that colonoscopy is the most effective means to detect early bowel cancer. Colonoscopy can not only clearly examine the entire large intestine, but also directly clamp and extract materials for pathological examination when lesions are found, which is conducive to the discovery and diagnosis of early and small colorectal cancer. But few people take the initiative to do colonoscopy, mainly because everyone generally lacks understanding of bowel cancer, and they are afraid of the invasive method of colonoscopy, which just delayed the condition. Therefore, patients with intestinal polyps should be checked in time, and follow-up should be conducted according to the doctor's guidance even after polyps are removed.
Who should be wary of bowel cancer?
Most patients with colorectal cancer are in the middle and advanced stages when they are discovered. Experts explain that there are no obvious symptoms in the early stage of colorectal cancer, and clinical symptoms will not appear until the disease progresses to a certain extent. Early screening methods for colorectal cancer are mainly: 1. Blood test CEA, CA199 and other colorectal cancer-related antigens; 2. Digital anal examination is particularly important for the detection of rectal cancer; 3. Stool occult blood test; 4. The most important and direct early screening The check method is colonoscopy.
Nowadays, Chinese bowel cancer patients have shown a trend of getting younger, and it is no longer uncommon for bowel cancer patients in their 20s. Experts remind that all the following manifestations: recent persistent abdominal discomfort, dull pain, and flatulence; changes in bowel habits, constipation or diarrhea, or alternating between the two; changes in stool shape, grooves, or thinning of stool; blood in the stool, especially dark red Or accompanied by blood clots; unexplained anemia or weight loss; abdominal masses, etc., should consider the possibility of bowel cancer, it is recommended to go to the hospital for related examinations to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. In addition, the individual has a history of adenoma, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), the family’s immediate family members have an important family history of bowel cancer or polyps, and hereditary syndromes such as familial multiple Colon polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, etc., these people need to be extra vigilant against bowel cancer. For people over 45 years of age with high risk factors, colonoscopy should be performed.