Hemorrhoids, also known as hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids, are one of the earliest recorded disease names in ancient times. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period in China, the words used for hemorrhoids were "si" and "chi", and there was no 疒 next to it, which meant protrusions and small fleshy protrusions. The first hemorrhoid next to the word 疒 appeared in the "Fifty-two Prescriptions" unearthed from the Han Tomb at Mawangdui, Changsha. There are two words in English to describe hemorrhoids, Hemorrhoids or Pile. Similar to the meaning of Chinese hemorrhoids is Pile, derived from the Latin "pila", which means spherical or protruding. Hemorrhoids come from ancient Greek 2500 years ago and indicate bleeding symptoms of hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoids are a common disease that affects human health. The theory of "ten people with nine hemorrhoids" indicates its high incidence. Prolapse, bleeding, pain, and anal unclean feeling are common symptoms of hemorrhoids. Domestic and foreign scholars have put forward different theories on the pathogenesis of hemorrhoids, from the theory of varicose veins to the most popular theory of the lower anal cushion, trying to explain the causes of hemorrhoids from different angles. Studies have shown that the formation of hemorrhoids is the result of the long-term effects of many factors, including diet, mental stress, exercise, and bowel habits.
The ancient method of treating hemorrhoids is amazing. In Western countries, in the 4th century BC, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, used a hot red soldering iron to burn painful hemorrhoids. Lydia Kang and Nate Peterson described in "A History of Absurd Medicine": The father of medicine emphasized that "after the cautery operation, the patient's head and hands should be fixed, so that he will yell out loudly, and this will Let the rectum fall out a bit more.” Later, he recommended applying a cream made of lentils and vegetables to the anus. Of course, facts have proved that cauterization cannot cure hemorrhoids, and can even cause severe infection and bleeding. Richard Zachs described the fact that Napoleon was defeated by hemorrhoids before the Battle of Waterloo in "An Alternative History of Western Civilization". In China, traditional Chinese medicine has a longer history of treating hemorrhoids. Ancient physicians emphasized internal and external treatment. The "Shen Nong's Materia Medica" in the Han Dynasty was the earliest medical book containing prescriptions for internal treatment of hemorrhoids, which contained 21 kinds of medicine. Books such as "The Essential Prescriptions for Qianjin" in the Sui and Tang Dynasties enriched the internal treatment of hemorrhoids. In the Song Dynasty, the medical book "Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang" included the treatment of different symptoms of hemorrhoids: "swelling and pain", "rat milk from the anus", "blood not stopping", "qi hemorrhoids", "wine hemorrhoids" and other prescriptions As many as 70 kinds. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the classification and treatment of hemorrhoids were further deepened. The external treatment of hemorrhoids can be traced back to the pre-Qin and Han dynasties. As early as in "Fifty-two Prescriptions", there are records about external treatment of hemorrhoids, including fumigation, hot ironing, and ligation. The book describes the treatment of hemorrhoids as "tied with a small string and cut with a knife". In the Han Dynasty, Zhang Zhongjing creatively infused pig bile and melon root into the intestines for laxative, which became the earliest enema in TCM surgery. He also described in "Treatise on Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases" that the honey decoction is made into finger-length, pointed stalks, and when it hardens, it is placed in the anus to form a suppository, which opens up a new clinical treatment for hemorrhoids. The approach is the prototype of modern anal suppositories. During the Wei, Jin, Sui and Tang dynasties, acupuncture, guiding and scalding hemorrhoids were widely spread. The ligation of hemorrhoids was recorded in the "Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang" of the Song Dynasty, using spider silk as a ligation tool. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the external treatment methods for hemorrhoids were more abundant. Chen Shigong in the Ming Dynasty created the famous "three products and one gun" treatment for hemorrhoids in "Surgery Zhengzong". Three times a day in the morning, noon, and evening...The hemorrhoids are naturally withered, black and hard." It refers to placing corrosive drugs on the affected area to corrode and dry the hemorrhoids. It is a traditional treatment with Chinese medicine characteristics.
In modern times, the treatment of hemorrhoids has made new progress, more diversified and scientific. In addition to the commonly used methods such as adjusting diet and bowel habits, oral and topical symptomatic drugs, and sclerosing agent injection treatment, external stripping and internal ligation has always been the most classic and effective surgical method for hemorrhoids treatment. This method was first designed by Milligan and Morgan of St. Mark Hospital in England in 1937, and it is also called M-M procedure. In 1954, Barron invented the world's first ligature. Nowadays, the automatic hemorrhoid ligator release rubber ring or elastic thread is used to ligate internal hemorrhoids. In 1998, Professor Longo from Italy creatively proposed the PPH operation based on the theory of "anal cushion", namely "circumcision of prolapse and hemorrhoids". That is, the special hemorrhoidectomy stapler is used to circularly remove the hemorrhoid mucosa and submucosa tissue, and at the same time, the distal and proximal mucosa are anastomosed to treat hemorrhoids. Physical therapy has also become a choice for the treatment of hemorrhoids, such as liquid nitrogen freezing, laser, microwave, infrared coagulation, electronics (low frequency, high frequency, radio frequency, capacitive field, iontophoresis, electrokinetic oscillation) and so on. The principle is to use sound, light, electricity, heat, magnetism and other physical effects to make local tissue protein coagulation, electrocoagulation hemostasis, electrocautery cutting, tissue degeneration, necrosis, shedding and atrophy to achieve the purpose of treating hemorrhoids. Ultrasonic knife, ligaSure and other new energy instruments are also used to remove external hemorrhoids to reduce bleeding.
From ancient times to the present, the history of miraculous treatment of hemorrhoids reflects the crystallization of human wisdom. With the in-depth understanding of hemorrhoids, we have stepped out of the misunderstanding of the treatment of hemorrhoids, and we no longer avoid the problem. In the current era of big data, individualization, precision, and minimal invasiveness have become a new goal in the medical field to concentrate on treating hemorrhoids.