1. The pathogenesis and classification of hemorrhoids There are currently two mainstream theories about the pathogenesis of hemorrhoids. One is caused by the rectal anorectal venous plexus, and the other is caused by the lowering of the anal cushion. In clinical work, it was found that both theories and theories have manifested in patients. Hemorrhoids can be divided into external hemorrhoids, internal hemorrhoids and mixed hemorrhoids according to the severity of the disease and the extent of the venous plexus involved. Only the external hemorrhoid venous plexus is involved as external hemorrhoids, only the internal hemorrhoid venous plexus is involved as internal hemorrhoids, and the internal and external hemorrhoids venous plexus is involved as mixed hemorrhoids.
2. Susceptibility factors: Long-term constipation, long-term diarrhea, preference for spicy food and frequent drinking, long-term sitting, etc.
3. Clinical manifestations The two clinical symptoms of hemorrhoids are mainly manifested as: painless blood in the stool and prolapse of anal hemorrhoids. Blood in the stool is fresh blood, which can be manifested as blood, dripping, or spurting on the stool surface or stool.
4. Stages Hemorrhoids can be divided into four stages:
One-stage hemorrhoids only have blood in the stool, not including prolapse;
Second-stage hemorrhoids have blood in the stool and prolapse during the stool, but the hemorrhoids can be absorbed by themselves after the stool;
Stage III hemorrhoids are manifested as blood in the stool and prolapse during the stool, and the hemorrhoids can be repaid by themselves after the stool, and need to be pushed back;
Stage IV hemorrhoids are manifested as blood in the stool and prolapse during the stool. The main symptom is the prolapse of the hemorrhoids. The hemorrhoids cannot be returned after the stool is pushed by hand, or the hemorrhoids will come out spontaneously after walking or coughing.
Hemorrhoids are generally painless, but thrombotic external hemorrhoids, inflammatory external hemorrhoids, and mixed hemorrhoids can be accompanied by pain or even severe pain.
5. Treatment principles Stage I and II hemorrhoids can be treated conservatively; Stage III and IV hemorrhoids and severe hemorrhoids in the stool stage I and II require surgical treatment.
6. Prevention mainly focuses on the predisposing factors of hemorrhoids. Develop good eating habits and bowel habits, eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, eat more crude fiber foods, increase stool volume, ensure daily defecation, and avoid long-term constipation. Bananas, dragon fruits, kiwis, apples, etc. are the main ones, while longan, lychee and other fruits that are easy to get angry are eaten less. Try to eat less spicy food and drink less alcohol to avoid long-term diarrhea caused by long-term intestinal irritation; avoid standing or sitting for a long time. After sitting for more than 1 hour, you can exercise properly or do several levator anal exercises; avoid prolonged toileting and defecation Do not read newspapers, magazines, mobile phones, etc., try to control the bowel movement time within 5 minutes.